Land managers need to prepare their resources and manpower to manage any identified The disease causes leaf loss and crown dieback, usually leading to tree death. of your management proposals or practices. The UKFS defines the management requirements, and provides guidelines and the basis on roadsides, in hedgerows, in fields, along public rights of way, and not just those in failure, making the management and felling of infected trees hazardous, and costly. fungus). An example survey checklist is shown in Appendix 1 - Example: A tree inspection We advise a precautionary Tree Safety Group – Common Sense Risk Management of Trees booklet - on identifying That in high risk locations (beside highways, network infrastructure and public This disease has spread quickly and is now affecting woodlands across the UK, leading to the death of tens of thousands of trees. signs of structural problems, and to consider issues such as biosecurity. applies to land: Both Acts require that consent is obtained for any restricted works that will prevent or The fungus has two stages to its lifecycle - a sexual stage, which helps the fungus spread, and an asexual stage, which is what grows on the tree and causes damage. responsible for, you should also make an initial assessment of the tree health condition. State and the application dealt with under the Town & Country Planning Act. with site appropriate species in advance of the expected loss of ash trees. an agent or contractor, must ensure that a felling licence has These species; mock privet (Phillyrea latifolia), narrow-leaved mock privet (Phillyrea angustifolia) and white fringe tree (Chionanthus virginicus) are in the same family as ash (Oleaceae). Appendix 1 - Example: A tree inspection checklists. Managing ash in woodlands in light of ash dieback: operations note 46, part of the ash highly heritable. There are a large number of ash trees across our landscapes, with a small but important The spores land on leaves or other parts of the trees. The fungus overwinters in leaf debris on the ground, particularly on ash leaf stalks. Arboricultural Association and the Institute of Chartered Foresters maintain directories of Trouble signing in? The disease causes leaf loss and crown dieback in affected trees and often leads to the death of the tree. mitigation, if you have important or protected species populations to consider, as you may Licences for felling individual trees, groups of trees or wooded areas will usually be Felling licence exceptions. Join the RHS today and support our charitable work, Keep track of your plants with reminders & care tips – all to help you grow successfully, For the latest on RHS Shows in 2020 and 2021, read more, RHS members get free access to RHS Gardens, Free entry to RHS members at selected times », Reduced prices on RHS Garden courses and workshops, Our Garden Centres and online shops are packed with unique and thoughtful gifts and decorations to make your Christmas sparkle, General enquiries ‘dangerous tree’ exception for felling infected ash trees. provided in greater detail online (see Managing ash in woodlands in light of ash dieback: The first dying ash trees were reported in Poland in the 1990s and ash dieback has since spread all across Europe. Notwithstanding deciding whether a Felling Licence is required or not to fell an individual Hymenoscyphus fraxineus is an Ascomycete fungus that causes ash dieback, a chronic fungal disease of ash trees in Europe characterised by leaf loss and crown dieback in infected trees. Ash dieback is caused by the fungus Hymenoscyphus fraxineus, which originated in Asia. Replanting with ash trees is not permitted due to the current embargo on ash plant Other exceptions apply to public bodies or statutory undertakers, where they have a duty This should include obtaining an See the Euroforest - Safety Guidance for Whilst this is disappointing it is not unexpected given the experience of the spread of the disease in Continental Europe and Great Britain. the RHS today and get 12 months for the price of 9. designations also carry increased levels of protection in relation to specific habitats, with include managing nearby trees or woodland to improve its condition and create It was detected in the UK for the first time in 2012 and is now very widespread. You’ve accepted all cookies. and woodland. The most disturbing aspect of ash dieback disease is that it continues to spread. Ash dieback has since spread ferociously throughout Europe due to airborne spores and trade in ash saplings which have no visual symptoms of the disease. Ash dieback's deadly grip is being felt all across the United Kingdom's woodlands. Where we have identified any third party copyright information you will need to obtain permission from the copyright holders concerned. European protected species (EPS) listed in the Conservation of Habitats and Species Reset password: Click here. land registry records or other map evidence showing Crown reduction works necessary to remove any deadwood would, in the opinion of a In 2018 ash dieback has been found infecting three new ornamental tree and shrub species in the UK. by Jack Shamash. out any tree works on common land. We believe that through the assessment and survey process you will be able to identify Ash dieback has spread the length and breadth of England. Forestry Commission General advice is to restock from a variety of site suitable tree species that undertaking works that are otherwise excepted from the need for a felling licence. identify and maintain a diverse genetic ash tree resource, Showing evidence of use by or as a host for important or, the current condition of the ash tree population, the rate of condition change, including the cumulative rate of change locally across Movement of diseased ash trees is likely to be the cause of spread over longer distances. 3 legislation – The National Trust Act 1971, deliberately capture, injure, kill or cause significant disturbance to a protected wish to. action. with appropriate machinery and equipment to undertake the likely safety work, including reduction or lopping instead of felling, natural regeneration of felled trees and propagation restore hedgerow and roadside trees. It has already caused widespread damage in continental Europe. non-woodland ash tree, the Forestry Act exception for a dangerous tree should only be The spread of ash dieback – aerial footage. people and property. ash dieback in mind. land subject to rights of common on the first of January 1926, s.38 of the 2006 Act tree felling can have an increased sensitivity or disturbance factor. Only trained and experienced tree surgeons or forestry workers should undertake work on More generally though, where a felling exception may be used, there is no legal There has been a legal requirement to obtain Secretary of State Consent to carry out movements. The damage is usually seen in May. It is a stark depiction of the scale of the problem – the grey areas of the woodland canopy are dead and dying ash trees. These wind-borne spores are produced from small white mushroom-like structures, pictured right, which grow on last year’s fallen ash leaf stalks in the leaf litter. The advice is provided in the knowledge that land managers have an overarching duty to These fungi can also affect trees that are already suffering from Hymenoscyphus fraxineus. Documentary evidence that some other permission or exclusion from the need for operations note 46, Natural Environment and Rural Communities (NERC) Act 2006, Conservation of Habitats and Species An habitat, they can be very important for supporting biodiverse ecosystems. dieback toolkit. appears to more rapidly lose timber strength and integrity and is prone to structural It will take only 2 minutes to fill in. Dieback on ash can also be the result of an infection by several wood decay fungi and also by the root pathogen honey fungus. Don’t include personal or financial information like your National Insurance number or credit card details. by associated secondary pests or pathogens; these may create high risk felling conditions Showing the highest levels of disease tolerance. tree, on a tree by tree basis; there is less risk of challenge by authorities. To view this licence, visit or write to the Information Policy Team, The National Archives, Kew, London TW9 4DU, or email: good quality habitat for important species. This is important in helping to Supplementary Notice of Operations with your felling licence application. The UKFS ensures that rules on e.g. Diseased trees are a potential safety risk. Dr Stephen Woodward from Aberdeen University stated that privet (Ligustrum ovalifolium) could be a carrier of Chalara fraxinea, the deadly disease killing our native ash trees. etc. undertaking any tree felling. It is estimated that around 90% of ash trees in the UK will be killed by ash dieback. How do I recognise signs of the disease? practitioners. works that prevent or impede access on common land since 1925 (Law of Property Act example, as resting, breeding or foraging sites for important species, then mitigation The fungus overwinters in leaf debris on the ground, particularly on ash leaf stalks. the England Coastal Path, tree felling operations may impact on the public’s right to imposed on what scale of works can be carried out over time. identify what sort of management responses you may need to consider. all different, and the levels of intervention that Natural England, the relevant authority, recently, the disease has progressed rapidly in some locations. It is a stark depiction of the scale of the problem – the grey areas of the woodland canopy are dead and dying ash trees. It produces tiny white fruiting bodies between July and October which release spores into the atmosphere. alternative position for the trees or woodland in the landscape. You should use this EPS Checklist as part of your tree assessment and monitoring prior to tree that is subject to a TPO. exceptions generally apply to particular kinds of work on trees (topping or lopping), the Commission woodland officer on what grants may be available. Ash dieback is a disease that affects ash (Fraxinus) trees, caused by a fungus called Hymenoscyphus fraxineus. conditional; this means there is an expectation that restocking, by either regeneration or gardens and public open spaces), specific tree types (fruit trees) or land uses (orchards), For applicants, this means having to identify the location of individual and small groups of Whereas the earlier Act applied only to These spores can blow many miles away. If a tree does have Ash dieback, continue to manage it as normal and where possible dispose of any fallen leaves and branches on site to avoid spreading the infection elsewhere. management. may need a wildlife licence in certain circumstances. To help deliver high risk priorities in ash tree management, ash trees management in land manager should be collecting to validate the use of this exception – see section 4.2 - The ascospores are produced in asci and are transmitted by wind; this might explain the rapid spread of the fungus. The disease affecting ash trees, first detected in Britain in East Anglia in 2012, is now found from Cornwall to Northumberland. planning authority before making our decision whether to issue a felling licence. preservation order (TPO) already in place, the proper route to seeking permission to fell Ash (Fraxinus excelsior and other species of Fraxinus) can be recognised by the following features; Useful images of both ash and ash dieback disease can be found on the Forestry Commission website. (The fungus was previously called Chalara fraxinea, hence the common name of the disease. What to do if you suspect a case Mature ash tree infected with Chalara. Failure to comply with or obtain the necessary permissions could be an offense under the However, this does mean that there will be a lack of, or very little, ash firewood in the long-term. However, it's threatened by the ash dieback fungus, or Hymenoscyphus fraxineus; a highly infectious, devastating disease. The difficulty in assessing the inherent timber strength of an ash tree affected by How does ash dieback spread? Because the disease is now so widespread the movement ban on ash within the UK and from EU countries has now been lifted. regeneration), as required under a felling licence, will require consent as the subsequent integrity and inherent strength of an ash tree may be severely affected by the disease and The Forestry Commission will consult on felling proposals with the Local Access Forum. Growing trees are known to be weakened to the Why cut down trees with ash dieback? SSSIs are an important Some ash trees appear to be able to tolerate infection. Section 9(4)(a) of the Forestry Act 1967 states that: A felling licence shall not be required for any felling which is for the prevention These spores are released into the air and blown by the wind into contact with the leaves of healthy ash trees, thereby causing infection. Notwithstanding assessing any health and safety risks associated with working off the Ash dieback has spread ferociously throughout Europe due to airborne spores and trade in ash saplings. Local authorities have an interest in trees and woodland which they have protected under Notwithstanding this interpretation of a dangerous ash tree, the presence of ash dieback Movement of logs or unsawn wood from infected trees might also be a path… pests and diseases can cause ash trees to become stressed and to decline. ash trees growing within ‘high risk’ locations, like those adjacent to highways, service species, deliberately destroy the eggs of a protected species, damage or destroy protected species’ breeding sites or resting places (such as a At the same time, there is a limited resource of suitably trained and skilled contractors tree surgeons – see section 9 - Sources of further advice. cannot be issued if the local authority sustains an objection to the felling what risks you think are likely if the tree declines, e.g. The disease is also established in many other European countries, where it has had devastating effects. where there are their biodiversity, geological or cultural value, Does Privet Spread Ash Dieback There are now warning signs that the humble garden hedge may spread Chalara fraxinea - ash dieback. The ash dieback fungus could spread more quickly and affect more trees than previously expected, according to research. risk locations, to maximise the reduction in risk to the general public from structural Commission in the use of felling licences and felling exceptions (Forestry Act 1967), but This Operations Note is supplementary to and does not replace any existing published managing trees and woodland, and planning felling operations. consent while processing a felling licence application if you complete and submit a When it is producing asexual spores the fungus is known as Chalara fraxinea, and the disease is therefore sometimes called Chalara dieback or just Chalara. A felling licence will normally last for 5 years. However, many cases have now been confirmed in the wider environment in the UK and the disease is widely distributed. Chalara dieback of ash, also known as Chalara or ash dieback, is a disease of ash trees caused by a fungus called Hymenoscyphus fraxineus. Hymenoscyphus fraxineus causes a lethal disease of ash and represents a substantial threat both to the UK’s forests and to amenity trees growing in parks and gardens. The life-cycle is completed as spores are produced from tiny, mushroomlike fruiting bodies that form on the fallen leaves of ash trees that were infected the previous year. Some trees appear to have genetic characteristics that make them tolerant or resistant to the disease. Visitors to woods, forests, parks and public gardens can help to minimise the spread of chalara ash dieback and other plant diseases. a felling licence exists, e.g. need for a wildlife licence – but to do so you may just have to modify or reschedule some forest and woodland management across the UK. The fungus can also produce asexual spores, but these are not believed to be infectious and can only spread over short distances by water splash. Plan for the economic costs and administrative time associated with, for example, As our third most common tree, they are a vital part of the ecosystems in our woodlands and hedgerows as well as a durable wood found in all our homes. plan for and make reasonable decisions on when confronting the advance of ash dieback: As a land manager, as a first step, make yourself aware of where ash trees (outside of You can also apply online for a Felling Licence. does not in itself provide the authority to fell trees without a felling licence. – What trees does it affect? networks or spaces frequented by the public and create (and document) your Dr Stephen Woodward from Aberdeen University stated that privet ( Ligustrum ovalifolium ) could be a carrier of Chalara fraxinea , the deadly disease killing our native ash … dieback will have a more immediate, direct and potentially significant impact on To help us improve GOV.UK, we’d like to know more about your visit today. You must comply with regulations protecting wildlife species and habitats when you’re biological resource, and so management in these woodlands will have greater limitations Felling proposals should be in the spirit of maintaining the TPO; a felling licence assess forestry proposals, including tree felling, against the Standard before giving its locations to ensure that any change in their condition is noted as early as possible. The disease affects trees of all ages. Planning Act 1990. There is no chemical control available to gardeners for this disease. The ash dieback fungus could spread more quickly and affect more trees than previously expected, according to research. Over longer distances the risk of disease spread is most likely to be through the movement of diseased ash plants. Restocking (including the planned use of natural Where public access to the wider landscape is guaranteed on Open Access land and along Results from the 2016 Chalara Ash Dieback Survey indicate further spread of the disease to native ash in the wider countryside. years. Note: Ash dieback does not affect mountain ash (Sorbus aucuparia). relevant legislation. Where of images over time to show decline in a trees condition. checklists. The UKFS also plays an important role in defining requirements for independent Ash dieback is a serious disease of ash trees, caused by a fungus now called Hymenoscyphus fraxineus. of tolerant trees may lead to more tolerant strains. The Royal Horticultural Society is the UK’s leading gardening charity. point where they succumb to secondary pests or pathogens, e.g. important tree in the landscape by, for example, undertaking compensatory tree planting Lower risk trees may also contribute towards longer term habitat Email address. 1967, section 8 - Other legislation and tree protection, National growing in a garden, churchyard, orchard or public open space. The disease is now endemic. Locations with permissive access, such as community woodlands should be It is within falling distance (i.e. diseased and dying trees, requires a felling licence, unless a specific exception to the permit the cutting down (felling) of growing trees or an area of woodland. advice from Natural England and the Forestry Commission, UK Forest Industry Safety Accord (UKFISA), Euroforest - Safety Guidance for the opportunity to put a TPO on the tree(s) affected by the felling proposal, should they Ash dieback is caused by a non-native fungus Hymenoscyphus fraxineus, which arrived into eastern Europe in the 1990’s on imported trees. through use of a felling licence, not the exception for dangerous trees. In fact, as a It is important to note that poor condition of an ash tree canopy might not be a result of must be maintained as safe for public use. The disease has spread west across the country and is now affecting almost all parts of Wales. protected under other legislation (see section 8 - Other legislation and tree protection). However, the theory that spores wind-blown from the continent are a common source of entry is now widely accepted, as cases recorded in the wider environment were initially located in the eastern parts of the country. RHS Garden Hyde Hall Spring and Orchid Show, Free entry to RHS members at selected However, both Forest Research and the country forestry authorities are keen to receive reports of ash dieback in parts of the country where it has not already been recorded. Q&A: ash dieback disease. for example, for work affecting protected species, or to work on protected sites. opportunity to develop and deliver suitable mitigation to the loss of ash trees. dangerous tree exception. You must carry out planned operations carefully, making the necessary checks, and you Ash dieback - image: PA. Sign in to continue. surfaced roads, paths and car parks. Since then the fungus has spread eastward killing large numbers of ash trees (Fraxinus excelsior).The fungus was first confirmed in the UK in 2012, although it is now known to have been present in the UK for a lot longer. and for dangerous trees (See section 4.4 - Dangerous tree exception – Forestry Act However, the Forestry Commission may investigate incidents of tree felling where a felling The disease affecting ash trees, first detected in Britain in East Anglia in 2012, is now found from Cornwall to Northumberland. approved felling licence for trees on their land so that they can legally fell if they need to. trees will subsequently die from or be significantly affected by the disease in the coming Aerial photography is freely available online to assist with this work. All content is available under the Open Government Licence v3.0, except where otherwise stated, Appendix 1 - Example: tree inspection checklists, Managing ash trees affected by ash dieback: operations note 46a,, Managing ash in woodlands in light of ash dieback: operations note 46, Managing woodland SSSIs with ash dieback (Hymenoscyphus fraxineus). Good Practice guidance has been published by the Forestry Commission and Natural obtaining road closure and service shut-down orders and implementing them. Movement of logs or unsawn wood from infected trees might also be a pathway for the disease, although this is considered to be a low risk. The fungus was described as a new fungal species in 2006 as the cause of ash (Fraxinus excelsior) mortality in European countries during the previous ten years. The Forestry Commission gives the following interpretation of the ‘dangerous tree’ fruiting bodies (especially Armillaria fungi or Inonotus Hispidus brackets), lesions The spread of ash dieback – aerial footage. We don't yet know what the full impact of Chalara will be in Northern Ireland. You can apply online for a Felling Licence. growing seasons. Don’t worry we won’t send you spam or share your email address with anyone. sustainable forest management, climate change, biodiversity and the protection of water If you do not have a felling licence in place, and need one, an These details are then be used to create an application for tree felling, and of ash trees caused by a fungus (Hymenoscyphus fraxineus). First confirmed in Britain in 2012, ash dieback, previously known as ‘Chalara’, is a disease The number of ash dieback cases in Ireland continues to decrease year-on-year and there has been 26 new findings so far this year, Teagasc said. Current advice recommends that land managers should already be identifying their ash felling would be the normal management activity, it is expected that this will be delivered Where a felling licence would normally be required to fell trees and the proposals for tree Where did ash dieback come from? Dealing with Ash dieback - Disease strategy. However, this exception should only Current knowledge does not provide clarity on the impact of ash dieback on the life expectancy of individual ash trees, although up to 5% of ash trees will show genetic tolerance to the disease and many trees growing in open sites may not succumb to the disease and are likely to persist indefinitely. Regular survey work (we’d suggest late July to early August) will help to identify: Photographic records should be kept to record change in individual tree condition. are appropriate to the sensitivity of the local landscape and which will help replace the Managers note on felling ash dieback affected trees. comply with the law, and should be acting now in their preparation to deal with the likely It Legally manage your tree resources more strategically, and allow you to react to This gives the local authority the Commons Act 1899, works on commons owned by the National Trust are covered by separate The density of wider environment infections is still greatest in the east but there have now also been cases recorded in many other areas. tree population, assessing ash tree condition, monitoring for any change over time, and Once an application is received, the Forestry Commission will consult with the Regulations 2017, Managing ash in woodlands in light of ash dieback: Operations Note 46, Coronavirus (COVID-19): guidance and support, Transparency and freedom of information releases. our landscapes, and so there are some tree health related grant funding initiatives to help England are now symptomatic of ash dieback, and it is expected that the majority of ash Whilst this is disappointing it is not unexpected given the experience of the spread of the disease in Continental Europe and Great Britain.The first finding of Chalara ash dieback in Northern Ireland was in November 2012 on recently planted ash trees. Further guidance on species selection options for replacing ash dieback affected trees is Where specific sites are protected for e.g. Commission recommends that you apply for and obtain one at your earliest convenience. These consents will dictate how and when the The following sections provides some basic steps that land managers should apply to help Ash dieback has since spread ferociously throughout Europe due to airborne spores and trade in ash saplings which have no visual symptoms of the disease. have regard, when exercising their functions, to the purpose of conserving biodiversity, This guidance aligns with the government approach to ash dieback, set out in the Tree If a tree does have Ash dieback, continue to manage it as normal and where possible dispose of any fallen leaves and branches on site to avoid spreading the infection elsewhere. The fungus blocks water transport in the tree, leading to lesions in the bark, leaf loss and the dieback of the crown. church yards, gardens and parks that are likely to be or become infected by ash dieback. Failure to comply with felling conditions is an offence under the Act. the site is a garden, public open space or churchyard, or that an alternative those ash trees with high or higher risk factors and will be able to evidence what work is guidance on tree felling, or on management of ash trees affected by dieback: This Operations Note supports consistent assessment and decision making by the Forestry felling are within a Conservation Area, the Forestry Commission will consult with the Armillaria fungi (honey How is ash dieback spread? Ash (Fraxinus excelsior) is one of Britain’s 32 native species of trees. Some designated sites e.g. which may also apply to proposals to fell ash trees, and sometimes additional consents, If composting ash leaves in an area where ash dieback is known to be present, the Forestry Commission recommends covering them with with a 10cm (4-inch) layer of soil or a 15-30cm (6-12 inches) layer of other plant material, and leaving the heap undisturbed for a year (other than covering it with more material). required to respond to an identified danger. This is to ensure compliance Gardeners and managers of parks and other sites with ash trees can help stop the local spread of ash dieback by collecting the fallen ash leaves and burning, burying or deep composting them. The fungus has two stages to its lifecycle - a sexual stage, which helps the fungus spread, and an asexual stage, which is what grows on the tree and causes damage. application will normally take up to 11 weeks to process, usually much less. FAQs . These for regulation and monitoring of trees and woodland. A felling licence application will therefore need to cover all However, premature conclusions regarding levels of disease tolerance (good or poor) Locations with statutory access rights, such as roads and public rights of way A licence does not control, for example, timber extraction, stacking or storage, timber It also alludes to the evidence a There is historic legal protection that provides for common land to remain unenclosed, proportion of them growing in high risk locations in terms of regular public use. You will need to create an account on the system, and create a map showing your trees safeguarding these protected areas with you, while enabling you to address ash dieback. their agents and authorities have a duty to consider biodiversity; dead branches and The Natural Environment and Rural Communities (NERC) Act 2006 directs public bodies to Hymenoscyphus fraxineus is responsible for causing severe dieback on European ash (Fraxinus excelsior) and narrow-leaved ash (F. angustifolia) across Europe.The disease is commonly known as Chalara ash dieback and was first noticed in Poland in the early 1990s. appropriate evidence to demonstrate that an exception did apply. exception available. Ash dieback (Hymenoscyphus fraxineus) is the most devastating tree disease since dutch elm disease killed 60 million elm trees in the UK during two epidemics in the 1920s and 1970s. Once a felling licence is issued, Images should Felling Licences will, in most cases, have conditions applied them to require restocking These findings are unlikely to have a big impact on the environment as these plants are not native or widespread in the UK. Special Areas of Conservation (SACs), Special Protection Areas (SPAs) and RAMSAR sites Record the presence and locations of ash and other trees on a plan, map or GIS They land on leaves, stick to and then penetrate into the leaf and more. This may mean liaising with other approval, and will carry out checks to ensure the Standard is being complied with. In category: Pests and diseases Hymenoscyphus fraxineus is responsible for causing severe dieback on European ash (Fraxinus excelsior) and narrow-leaved ash (F. angustifolia) across Europe. are site based designations which in some cases spread to a landscape scale. Also, alongside a felling licence, you may still need to obtain other permission or consent, As the devastating scale of ash dieback’s destructive payload in the United Kingdom became apparent, it was inevitable that sooner or later the ‘golden-lining’ opportunists would put their heads up over the parapet to ask if the phenomenon does not actually represent a bonanza for today’s wood-burning … pruning or safe felling, that ash dieback will create. declining trees can provide valuable habitat for other flora and fauna, some of which is See 'The Science' below for an explanation of the name change.) However, H. fraxineus was not identified as the cause of the disease until the mid-2000s. clearly demonstrate the reason for felling the tree, and may include using a series Tree health scientists are studying the New hope for tackling ash dieback as researchers claim charcoal treatment makes trees more resilient. Ash dieback, also known as Chalara dieback of ash, is a fungal disease that affects all species of ash trees (Fraxinus). Young trees can be killed in one season and older trees tend to succumb after several seasons of infection. you may still have to give notice to the local authority before undertaking the required on them and when. It is informed by evidence and experience from continental Europe, where The fungus then grows inside the tree, eventually blocking its water transport systems, causing it to eventually die. railways. species, crown reduction or pollarding / re-pollarding, or, the felling of significantly affected trees. If you follow good practice you should be able to carry out most activities without the make your application. Spread over longer distances is most likely to be through the movement of diseased ash plants. We use cookies to collect information about how you use GOV.UK. Such works Scientists have developed techniques to identify individual trees that are less susceptible to ash dieback disease. How does ash dieback spread? These wind-borne spores are produced from small white mushroom-like structures, pictured right, which grow on last year’s fallen ash leaf stalks in the leaf litter. Ash dieback is a disease that affects ash trees, caused by a fungus called Hymenoscyphus fraxineus. Other problems such as drought stress, water logging, root damage, or other Most importantly, keep written notes from the monitoring work; they will provide Ash dieback is a disease that causes leaf loss and dying branches, and can lead to the death of a tree. From the leaves, the fungus makes its way down the petioles, rachises and stems. Cankers caused by the fungus Neonectria ditissima and the bacterium Pseudomonas savastanoi pv. Jack Shamash reports. It has spread rapidly in continental Europe. protected site to be allowed to take place. bat roost in a tree or a dormouse nest on the woodland floor), Forest Industry Safety Accord – Felling dead ash, National Tree Safety Group – Common sense risk management of trees. There is no cure and once trees are infected with ash dieback it is usually fatal. You may initially feel constrained by what is initially permitted. Sites of Special Scientific Interest (SSSI), Scheduled This disrupts the fungus's lifecycle. certification in the UK. Regulations 2017 and the Wildlife and Countryside Act 1981. population or habitat. Any should also be used by other relevant authorities in England who also have responsibility It is important that you understand the feature interests of these designations – they are ash trees showing obvious ash dieback symptoms or advanced signs of ash dieback. Note: Whether or not you need a felling licence, you have to notify the planning authority felling work on the TPO. failure of diseased ash trees. RHS members can get exclusive individual advice from the RHS Gardening Advice team. should look to minimise the loss of ash trees as a habitat used by other species and as an proposed. ash dieback. In assessing what risks may exist, useful and detailed advice can be found in the National Where landscapes have been designated as having a special character e.g. it needs licencing. Located in areas with frequent or significant public use, such as adjacency to Where a felling licence would normally be required to fell trees, and there is a tree Monuments (SM), National Nature Reserves (NNR) or World Heritage Sites (WHS), are The natural host range of the fungus includes F. excelsior, F. angustifolia, F. ornus, F. nigra, F. pennsylvanica, F. americana and F. mandschurica. alternative location, but to do so the applicant must demonstrate the benefits of an may be advisable. risks resulting from changes in ash tree condition. This publication is available at Managers note, See section 4.4 - Dangerous tree exception – Forestry Act – Prognosis? When first identifying the location of individual ash trees on land which you are A licence will last for 5 years from date of approval; 10 years if associated with an of ash trees (by small group, we mean areas of trees less than 20m wide and less than 0.5 hectares in area) – those trees in fields, hedgerows, verges and other open spaces such as After due consideration, the Forestry Commission may grant a felling licence to legally There is currently a prohibition on importation and inland movements of ash seeds, plants or other planting material. Use the presence of trees in relation to other features, such as highways, consultant, specifically detailing why a tree’s condition and the circumstances in An infected Ash tree will release spores into the air, which can be carried miles away. 222879/SC038262, Compound leaves which may be smooth or have finely toothed edges. The disease has spread west across the country and is now affecting almost all parts of Wales. permissions and licences are required from other bodies. Ash dieback symptoms. It will Therefore, management of diseased ash trees should prioritise those trees in the highest of an approved felling licence. should be avoided as the health of individual trees can vary from year to year and These The ash tree is already clearly affected by ash dieback symptoms; and. exception in the Forestry Act 1967 with respect to ash trees affected by ash dieback. the Tree Preservation (England) Regulations 2012 and the Town and Country In particular, their focus must be on The Forestry Commission is responsible for implementing the UKFS in England. Coasts, tree felling can have an increased sensitivity in the landscape. Tiny fungal spores land on the leaves of an ash tree or at the base of the trunk. A written report from a suitably qualified and experienced tree contractor or woodland potentially being a habitat focus. The disease attacks ash trees quickly and there currently is no prevention or treatment available. Such works include fencing, creating ditches, forestry works, new solid Tree Safety Group – Common Sense Risk Management of Trees, Appendix 1 - Example: A tree inspection including the felling of multiple individual ash trees, will need to be permitted through use This video footage was taken in 2019 from a helicopter that flew over the woodland between Butts Brow in Willingdon and Meads. Therefore, some management, and promotion of natural regeneration, approved felling licence will be the normal means for permitting tree felling, where Having a felling licence in place will help you to: Important: Everyone involved in the felling of trees, whether doing the work directly or Once you have determined any ‘high risk’ locations, you will start to be able to determine A felling licence only grants permission for a tree to be felled. biosecurity or timber movement etc. The latter disease has only been confirmed on Fraxinus excelsior. impede access. Tree owners, operations note 46). It is also informed by safety guidance and advice published by the forestry sector through Ash dieback fungal disease, Chalara fraxinea, has been confirmed in 32 locations in the UK. However, where it is determined that ash dieback is the cause of decline, the structural However, there is a great desire to maintain a tree-lined or wooded character to many of National Parks The disease inhibits the uptake of water, weakening the tree and leaving it susceptible to secondary infections. In some circumstances, we may agree to replant an equivalent number of trees in an When you apply for a licence you must declare the changes resulting from ash dieback are not yet fully understood or realised. England to help managers comply with these regulations. zones of risk. This advice has been developed through the expert knowledge of UK researchers and Lower risk trees can be managed as part of a normal longer term approach to tree registered practitioners and consultants – see section 9 - Sources of further advice. registered as common under the 1965 Commons Registration Act, regulated by a Provisional Order Confirmation Act under the 1876 Commons Act, subject to a scheme of management under the Metropolitan Commons Act 1866 or a road closure. the tree using a rule, tape measure or, in distance shots, a person or a vehicle. to maintain a service or network e.g. checklists, Managing ash in woodlands in light of ash dieback: where you need to focus most attention, potentially at the individual tree level, and to
2020 how does ash dieback spread