The collect and display their data in appropriate graphs in order to examine the factors that influence an animal's ability to survive. A fact sheet about the bacteria that cause Lyme disease. This is known as a lotic (flowing water) system. Organic matter that is washed onto the shore, or "wrack," is an important part of shoreline ecosystems because it provides habitats for macroinvertebrates and nutrients for both terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems. In this dataset, students can explore the relationship between childhood lead levels, county, and poverty level, and explore how these relationships have changed over time. Students will use information from the website to complete page 1. Review answers with students. Strayer, D. Fischer, and H.M. Malcolm. Long-term data set demonstrating the change over time in the Hudson River before and after sewage treatment plants. Explain: Show the American Museum of Natural History video, “Going Further,” to introduce the changes in zebra mussel class sizes first noticed about 2005. This can also be done while students are rotating through the microscope stations. Do different insect species occur along the edge versus the interior of a forest? by Cary Institute of Ecosystem Studies Have teams report out their information and begin to fill in the ‘2005-2009’ column in the chart they began in Part 2. Students set up experiments to test the effects of compost tea on plant growth, learn about plant development, then monitor their experiments for 3-5 weeks. Analysis of delta13C, delta15N, and delta34S in the common local consumers such as grass shrimp (Palaemonetes sp. Students should be aware of the decrease in dissolved oxygen and an increase in water transparency from the previous part of the lesson. Lonsdale. endstream endobj 275 0 obj <. Students will know how tides affect plant community distribution and nutrient uptake in a freshwater tidal wetland and will be able to investigate their ideas through a field trip to the wetland. Caraco, and J.J. Cole. Transformation of The interconnectedness of how organisms are involved in energy transfer within an ecosystem is vital to understanding food webs and how they apply to real-world … Looking at air temperature records can tell us about the climate of a certain location. NOTE: A key to this chart is provided at the end of this lesson plan. If there are differences in rates of evaporation, what could be some possible causes or factors affecting these differences? variability in the flow rates of water. Students will learn how transition from gaining information from a 3-dimensional model to gaining information from an overhead 2-dimensional view. Studying ecosystems can be done everywhere, and you don't need a lot of materials to do so! Students make food chains for their study site organisms, and learn food chain terminology. 6 minutes ago. Biotic factors are organisms living in that along with any plants. The “Meet the Scientists” link brings you to the videos.). With increasing human population in the last one hundred years, the Hudson has endured high levels of raw sewage, loading of nutrients, and the accumulation of pollutants such as PCBs. Unless we live in such a place, this idealized diagram does not teach us where our water comes from or what happens to rain that falls on our neighborhoods. Students will know the concept of biomagnification and be able to explain how biomagnification relates to cadmium levels in blue crabs in the Hudson River. Ask: Are the changes caused by the zebra mussels “good” or “bad”? 0% average accuracy. Making slides with live animals can be done during class with students or ahead of time. Students should view live organisms or prepared slides at the microscope stations in order to help understand what forms the base of the Hudson River food web. Students write predictions of how a proposed change to their study site would affect the organisms that live there. 7 new things you can do with Prezi Video to support online learning Students will understand variability in the abundance of American eels (Anguilla rostrata) in tributaries of the Hudson River by comparing data from different locations over time. Effects of an invasive bivalve on fish in the  Students work in groups to create displays that show what happens to a dead leaf over time. Students evaluate the environmental, political and economic consequences of their actions, and grapple with the difficult nature of making environmentally sound choices. (Optional: If you did not show the two video clips at the end of Part 1, you may want to do so now.) Students will collect diatom samples and compare diatom communities from their sampling site with salinity levels. Current projects. 1999. Ecosystems are often destroyed due to the impact of humans or other environmental disasters, such as a flood or drought. Using data from the Hudson River Environmental Conditions Observation System (HRECOS) you can track the storm and its effect on the river. Photos and descriptive information about common invasive plants found in and around Dutchess County, NY. A short overview of the process of eutrophication. Invertebrates are an important link in the food web as they convert the energy in plant and other organic matter into protein (their own bodies). In this resource, the complex food-webs of wetlands are explored through a case study of the Macquarie Marshes in northern NSW–a designated Ramsar site. Students will see scientists collect and analyze information about the early years of the zebra mussel invasion in the Hudson River. Students will use data to create a scatter plot by hand and be able to understand the importance of replication and the intrinsic link between variability and the conclusions that can be drawn from data. Students will read about the basics of dissolved oxygen and the ways in which it can be measured. Students will know how the water cycle has been altered by humans using local data. 28 May 2020. Students will know how a water chestnut bed impacts dissolved oxygen levels across space and through time and will be able to use graphs to explain these changes. Hattala, and A.W. Students use online interactive food webs to learn about different communities that live in the Hudson River and view different species of plankton with microscopes. What controls its presence? Common algae found in the Hudson estuary answering: What is it? The food web structure of the mountain ecosystem involves different components, whether it is biotic or abiotic components. Land cover types can be measured by using a grid overlay to aid in determining percent coverage. Much of my past research has focused on river-floodplain ecosystems in the Pacific Northwest and the importance of these floodplains for fish. Do different tree species occur along the edge versus the interior of a forest? This brief article provides and overview of the answers to those questions. These levels can be illustrated in a trophic pyramid where organisms are grouped by the role they play in the food web. In these lessons, students construct their own understanding of ecosystems through investigations in their schoolyard, developing ideas about ecological processes and functions. Zebra Mussel (Dreissena polymorpha). All living organisms take up and use nutrients. Algae, Hilsa, Boal. Part 1: “Introduction to the Hudson River Food Webs”. This dataset shows how species density and diversity have shifted over time, and how these shifts vary based on location. Number of Mayfly nymphs (larvae) in the East Branch of the Wappinger Creek. Plants in the river are also important in food webs—microscopic algae are often eaten while alive, while larger aquatic plants mainly enter food chains after they have died. For example, the 1st level forms the base of the pyramid and is made up of producers. 2006. Youngsters try to explain differences based on environmental conditions they can observe - soil conditions, ground cover and local physical conditions. Videos feature Dr. Strayer and other Cary Institute scientists. Food Chains / Food Webs The interrelationship between species in the river, wetland, grassland, and woodland habitats of the Platte River prairie ecosystem is a complex, dynamic food system. Explore: Ask: What do you think has happened to the populations of your organisms since 2005? Using sediment cores collected from deep below the surface of seas and lakes, scientists can analyze things like macrofossils, temperature, pollen, and more from thousands of years ago. Students learn about both the biotic and physical history of the Hudson River ecosystem, including its geology, tides, and watershed. Explore: Introduce the six groups of organisms used in this activity: Phytoplankton (Chlorophyll), Nauplii (immature copepods), Rotifers (microzooplankton), Copepodsand Cladocerans (both are macrozooplankton), and Unionids (native mussels including the pearly mussel). Students will be able to discuss the life cycles of common macroinvertebrates and use data to compare macroinvertebrate larval abundance to adult numbers and make inferences. They will make comparisons among the data and predict the preparedness of NYC to withstand sea level rise. (High School), Do Hudson River striped bass PCB levels vary by location? many different (and changing) microhabitats. The kick netting technique is also useful if leaf packs are washed away or dislodged and contents are no longer present in the pack. Are there differences in the CO2 levels in different areas of the school campus? Students will know what herbivory is and will be able to identify different forms of herbivory. A graphical overview of the carbon cycle, both prior to human burning of fossil fuels and after. Students trace water through the community, and understand how filtration, gravity and microbes clean wastewater. Invertebrates feed on living and dead plant matter, and on each other. Compare the number of earthworms living in different parts of a study area by forcing worms to the surface using a non-lethal irritant (hot mustard slurry!). Students will interpret geological maps, identify the permeability rates in different glacial deposits, and be able to infer which local townships can best benefit from residential wells. Is there a difference in the decomposition rates between areas above and below ground? Do large soil organisms (e.g., worms) speed up decomposition? Illustration of how food sources influence Lyme transmission. Ask students to make predictions about other groups of organisms in their food webs. Students will learn about the zebra mussel invasion and zebra mussel ecology. The concept of a food web is credited to Charles Elton, who introduced it in his 1927 book, Animal Ecology. Tell students that a major change in the zebra mussel population occurred about 2005. Students test factors that promote the growth of microbes, then use their findings to make compost. The 2nd level is made up of herbivorous consumers and so on. In this module students learn about microbes as decomposers, develop experimental design skills, and apply their knowledge to a variety of everyday situations. Scientists measure the amount of carbon as a proxy for phytoplankton production. Cary Institute of Ecosystem Studies | Millbrook, New York 12545 | Tel (845) 677-5343, A guide to invertebrate life in the leaf litter, Air Pollution Trends in the United States, Hudson River Ecology Water & Watersheds, Aquatic Invertebrate Life History and Populations, Balance of Photosynthesis and Respiration, 3-5 6-8 9-12, Biodiversity - Baltimore Ecosystem Study RET, Biomagnification: Cadmium in the Food Web, Blood Lead Levels, Poverty and Housing Trends for Mid-Hudson Valley and NYC, 3-5 6-8 K-2 9-12. Scientists make hypotheses at the beginning of any scientific study. Students will know how the sewage levels in the Hudson River have changed over time, and be able to explain the consequences of these changes. Students will know how soil compaction affects water infiltration and will be able to design and carry out a simple experiment to test their ideas. Students work in groups to rank four sites according to their suitability for planting shrubs, then independently complete a diagram showing a nutrient cycle for the preferred site. They can use the Microbe ID pages to find the names of the organisms. Decomposers are also a part of the food web. Questions arise out of scientific experiments that lead to other experiments. Part 2: The Invasion of the Zebra Mussels -- Population Changes. This case study allows students to understand community level changes, which they can then apply to other systems. As a whole class, student teams share information about organism populations, and then use information from classmates, discussion, and a PowerPoint to chart changes in biotic and abiotic factors resulting from the zebra mussel invasion. Following the Invasion of the Zebra Mussel: Long-term Results from the Hudson River  Students will know the difference between a pulse and a press event with regards to eutrophication and be able to graph the growth of algae over time. Hudson River estuary. Freshwater Biology, 39:103-116. If using live specimens, “demoslides” from Connecticut Valley Biological Supply are easy use; each demoslide costs around $3. Students brainstorm and share what they already know about wetlands, and sketch a simple tidal marsh diagram with vegetation zones and appropriate organisms. Food webs fuel the ecosystem, providing the theme for this review. Each student will need his or her own zebra mussel mini-graphs. Water flow is the main factor that makes river ecology different from other water ecosystems. Explain: Discuss what students have discovered. This protocol requires that leaf packs are assembled and placed in the stream 3-4 weeks before data collection takes place. Discuss what students have created, and create a class-wide food web on the board. If so, what processes are involved that may influence the amount of rainfall, or throughfall, that reaches the ground? Each food chain is one possible path that energy and nutrients may take as they move through the ecosystem. Greater Yellowstone’s diversity and natural wealth includes the hydrother-mal features, wildlife, vegetation, lakes, and geologic wonders like the Grand Canyon of the Yellowstone River. Students will know  how to estimate flow in a river or stream, and be able to explain how how Hudson River flow is expected to change as predicted by global climate change models. Students will know some of the major changes that have taken place in the Hudson River watershed and be able to determine what has caused these changes using graphs, tables, and maps. Students make and process final observations of their plants, graphs and discuss their data in groups, compile the whole class data, discuss conclusions, then write letters to GROW. Obtaining and utilizing these resources will have a direct affect on the quality of the environment in a given area. Students often leave out important parts of the food web, especially invisible or hidden organisms and detritus. Dataset representing wildlife encounters recorded by trail cameras during the late summer and fall, 2015-2016. References:  Illustration of acids, hydrogen ions, and a PH scale of water sources. Students can find information about food/prey and predators by referring back to the website. Explain: Reconvene so that teams can report on what they learned from the graphs. Discuss. Students will know how plants are able to remove nitrate pollution, and will be able to compare differences in nitrate uptake by aquatic or terrestrial plants. In the tropical rain forest ecosystems surrounding the Amazon River in South America, a similar situation is taking place. Tell students that they are going to act out the part of the food web that is difficult to see. In this way, they learn first hand what an air photo is, and begin to develop the skills of land cover classification and quantification from something that they've created themselves. They then make an "air photo" of this model and analyze land cover types from this. Now have students record their predictions about how the zebra mussels will affect two abiotic factors (water transparency and dissolved oxygen), fish and submerged aquatic vegetation and record those predictions on their charts. There are two major zones: rapids, Students will use HRECOS graphs of Hudson River water temperature data from the month of July in the years 2010-2016, identify trends in the data, exceptions to the data, and make predictions about possible causes of the data trends. Cascade interactions occur in food webs when one group of organisms indirectly affects another group, by feeding on animals that eat the other group. Ecosphere, 1:1-10. NOTE: Chlorophyll measurement is a well-established method to assessing the quantity of phytoplankton in an aquatic environment. Abiotic are the temperatures, rock and other things that are non-living. 15. Students will know how water flows around their school and will be able to explain how permeability and pollution within a watershed affect water quality. Students will know how a large storm affects the flow of water in streams and be able to create a graph that explains their answers to this question. Students will use pages 4 and 5 in their Student Packets for this activity. A wastewater travel log, Who Eats What Exhibition- Performance Assessment, Wildlife Distribution & Abundance in Managed Ecosystems, Worms, Water, and People on the Schoolyard, MST 1 - Mathematical analysis, scientific inquiry, and engineering design, MST 2- Informational Systems/ Information Technology, MST 4- Physical setting, living environment and nature of science, MST 5- Engineering and computer technology to satisfy societal needs, MST 6- Interconnectedness of mathematics, science, and technology (modeling, systems, scale, change, equilibrium, optimization), MST 7- Problem solving using mathematics, science, and technology (working effectively, process and analyze information, presenting results), Student Worksheets for Hudson River Food Webs. Students will know that removing an invasive plant can have a variety of impacts and be able to explain some of these impacts using evidence. Food webs determine the fate of mercury pollution in the Colorado River, Grand Canyon. Most organisms eat a variety of different foods. Students hear a story of a scientist who studies microbe decomposers, then plan and take a trip outside to collect items for culturing microbes. This slide asks students to consider: How do you think this affected other organisms? Part 3: “Small, Medium and Large Zebra Mussels?” Using additional data in the form of graphs, students work in their groups to understand the changes that have taken place in the later years of the invasion. Students will know the functions of wetlands and will be able to explain at least one function performed by wetlands. More advanced students will be able to make additional links and will start to think about the “ripple effect” of a new consumer in the system. - Help support more content like this! Activities, extensions tasks, and a mobile app are Students can learn about pollution caused by phosphates. Students will know how salt pollution gets into groundwater, and be able to explain what happens when salt is applied to the ground/roads using data. There are a number of ecological concerns related to this practice, including an increase in turbidity due to infrastructure development for the wells and reduced streamflow due to water withdrawals for the fracking process. Scientists sometimes describe this dependence using a food chain or a food web. Student will compare macroinvertebrate diversity and abiotic conditions in stream riffles and pools. A food web consists of all the food chains in a single ecosystem. This unit's focus is on the  characteristics and historical drivers that primarily shaped the Hudson River ecosystem before European settlement. Students will know that the presence of humans has an impact on soil communities in their schoolyard. Thinking about the flow of matter and energy with students is one of the key ways of exploring ecosystems. Students will know that plants use oxygen underwater and be able to design an experiment that will test this question. Hurricanes are a type of tropical cyclone or severe tropical storm. On page 2 of their packet is a place to sketch the organisms. They should know that they have been looking at organisms at the ‘base’ of the Hudson River food webs – the producers (algae and phytoplankton) support the primary consumers that feed the larger consumers in the ecosystem. Students will know how to map puddles on their school property and investigate what lives in the puddles. You may wish to show this short video two or three times, discussing the information after each viewing. Students gain skills in field work and identification of these critters and have the opportunity to explore and interpret trends in their data as well as data collected by others. Biology, 36:771-779. 1998. The nutrients then fertilize the river, providing food for the salmon fry when they emerge. Students will gain data indicating how frequently the different areas of the schoolyard are used. Students will know how the pollution in the Hudson River has changed over time, and be able to explain the consequences of these changes. 1996. River ecosystems are flowing waters that drain the landscape, and include the biotic interactions amongst plants, animals and micro-organisms, as well as abiotic physical and chemical interactions of its many parts. Students will know how much water enters and exits their school building, creating a water budget and be able to understand how land cover affects the water that enters the school campus. This can be set up simply as an open inquiry opportunity, or as a way of pursuing specific whole-schoolyard questions that might have surfaced during previous inquiries. Students will hypothesize how a storm event might change the physical and chemical characteristics of a local stream and be able to collect data to support or negate their hypotheses and communicate these results to others. Distribute Student Worksheet packets. For example in the river a biotic factor can be small frogs, plants, fish anything living in the river. Flow can be affected by sudden water input from snowmelt, rain and groundwater. You may also return students’ food webs from the first part of the lesson, and ask them to add details to the Hudson River ecosystem (they should include at least two abiotic factors, dissolved oxygen and water transparency), then have them note which parts of the ecosystem have been affected by the zebra mussels and how they changed. Does sunlight exposure affect grass biomass in a given area? A series of pictures and descriptions identifying common invertebrates found in litter packs. Students will know where light is more and less available and be able to measure the differences in leaf area and stomata density between leaves in the sun and in the shade. [inquiry lesson], What climate change means for the Hudson River, Where does our water go? Before they learn the details, have students reassemble their teams and examine the final graph (2005-2009) in the series and answer the first question in Part 3 in their packets. Divide students into six teams, one for each organism. River ecosystems are prime examples of lotic ecosystems. Students will know that having different types of trees affects forest ecosystem function, and will be able to explain the impacts of changing species composition on function. School sites are habitat for creatures other than humans. The best way to describe it is that each type of bacteria has tools to break Students visit thier study site to look for animals and clues about their food resources. k� �����M�9� �� /d� This lesson introduces new and exciting research conducted on the Tar-Pamlico River while addressing essential terminology for understanding the interdependence of plants and animals with their ecosystems including food chain, food web, energy pyramid, adaptation, decomposers, producers and consumers. [Exploration with data from Wappinger Creek], Weather: How could storms affect streams? Unlike biology, ecology refers to the study of not just organisms but how they react, and are affected by the natural surrounding environment or ecosystem. This is a simplified dataset created from the full data collected by the Eel Project. Repeat with the 1993-2004 graphs that display early invasion population numbers. The Amazon rain forest includes hundreds of ecosystems, including canopies, understories, and forest floors. Food chains help us understand the connection between living things. In this picture of a food chain, you can see that the algae at the bottom is eaten by a shrimp, which is eaten by a fish, which is eaten by … Primary producers – These are the organisms that produce the source of food for the community. Students will learn how to design a good investigation and the concept of a fair test. The River Ecology program focuses their research on; providing information on the overall structure and function of aquatic ecosystems; providing specific information on available resources; and evaluating various management, consveration, and restoration practices, to determine how such practices affect aquatic ecosystems. Pace, M.L. Data show a 123-year record (1885-2008) of first arrival date of select migratory birds in Dutchess County, NY. Does decomposition vary in different places? The Hudson River has one of the highest levels of PCB pollution of any river on the East Coast. Students will explore where water exists inside and outside of their school and create a class bar graph of their data. This data can be collected over months or year to analyze and compare data on seed production over time. Project Methods The overarching approach is to use food web variation produced by large-scale experimental riparian manipulations and differences in land use both to generate insight into important processes controlling river ecosystem function and to gain information on how human activity affects river food webs. Students will know how an invasive species has changed the Hudson River food web and be able to explain the impact of the zebra mussel on the food web over time. Mosquitoes play an integral role in the spread of diseases such as malaria, dengue fever, West Nile fever, and encephalitis. The next thing they think of is studies involving the relationship of plants and animals to one another. Preparing live slides takes some time, although students can help if you have dissecting and compound microscopes. These data show water quality levels for dissolved oxygen and fecal coliform bacteria at Manhattan. Students will be able to define a population of dandelions and understand why distribution and abundance of individuals is important. … The lessons in this unit provide methods for students to carry out three investigations to ask questions about differences in the land cover types for three important dimensions of the schoolyard ecosystem: The unit culminates in a final lesson where students have the opportunity to pursue topics they identify themselves. (Middle School), Schoolyard Ecology Water & Watersheds, Schoolyard Ecology Biodiversity, Ecosystem Consequences of Town Decisions: Agriculture Version, Ecosystems in Action: Cycling of Matter & Energy, Ecosystems in Action: Population & Community Dynamics, Eel Migration in the Hudson Estuary (Middle School), Eel Migration in the Hudson River Estuary (High School), Environmental Impact Statements- Written assessment, Exploring Abiotic Changes due to Zebra Mussels, Exploring Hudson River PCB data (High School), Exploring Hudson River PCB data (Middle School), Exploring Population Change due to Zebra Mussels, Fecal Coliform Bacteria & Oxygen Levels at Manhattan, Fish and Crab Diversity and Richness Along the Hudson River, Fish Populations & Dissolved Oxygen (Snapshot Day), Full Lower Hudson with Submerged Vegetation, Glass Eels in Hudson River Tributaries (Eel Project), Graphing and interpreting zebra mussel data, Gypsy Moth Egg Masses on Cary Institute Grounds, Historical Hudson Valley Temperature & Precipitation (NOAA). On average, only 10% of the energy from an organism is transferred to its consumer. How to create a video lesson on Prezi Video and prepare for next year; 27 May 2020. An ecosystem is the sum of interactions between plants, animals and microorganisms and between them and non-living physical and chemical components in a particular natural environment. A brief reading summarizing major changes in the Hudson River watershed, including a discussion of when an ecosystem "bends" and "breaks". Students will investigate the physical and chemical parameters of a waterway, discuss the impact of different types of land cover, and use data from Wappinger Creek collected before, during, and after a storm to examine the effects of storm water on a small stream. Ask students to think about which parts of the created web may be missing organisms or missing links between organisms. Food webs illustrate the interconnectedness of organisms within an ecosystem. Smith. Students prepare for and do an outdoor investigation of soil in areas where plants and other landscape feature differ, then use their findings to think about plant and soil connections. Have you ever thought about the animals and plants that live in and around a river and how they depend on each other for food? Students will be able to observe the environment around them and formulate questions based on their own observations. During Part 2 students will be split into six teams. Make sure that all students have noticed the detritus and bacteria in the food web – these components of the ecosystem are a more important food source than phytoplankton. Students will know where nitrogen exists and in which forms, and will be able to draw a diagram showing the movement of nitrogen in ecosystems. What organisms seem to specialize in one or two habitats? Hydrofracking, or hydraulic fracturing, is a gas production technique where the natural gas is extracted from rock deep underground using a cocktail of water and chemicals (fracking fluid), injected with high pressure. Students will identify abiotic characteristics of pools and riffles in a stream and analyze, interpret, and display data they collected on during their field trip to Wappinger Creek. Students learn about the factors that determine the quantity and quality of water flowing from any watershed, and the impact this has on aquatic ecosystems. The food web in the ocean ecosystem is subject to tidal zones, coral reefs, river mouths, estuaries and reefs where saltwater is predominant. By 1992 they had spread throughout the freshwater and slightly brackish parts of the estuary. Hurricane Irene caused extensive flood and wind damage as it traveled across the Caribbean and up the East coast of the United States. Identify some possible threat to your ecosystem and write about them below and why they could destroy your ecosystem. Students collect data about the "seed rain" in the their schoolyard, while also learning to identify trees and seeds in their schoolyard. The National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) collects temperature and precipitation data from around the world and displays it on their Climate at a Glance website. Show the remaining PowerPoint slides for Part 2. Students become familiar with what animals and animal signs to look for outdoors, then practice field research skills and methods. Data from the Cary Institute of Ecosystem Studies showing the change in dissolved oxygen in response to water chestnut. Students will learn how different elements of the schoolyard ecosystem are linked, how scientists compile data and search for patterns and relationships, and how these relationships can be described. Lake ecosystem Food Web Angler Legend TC (carnivore) Heron TC (carnivore) Perch SC Tertary Consumer = tc Coot (omnivore) TC (carnivore) Secondary Consumer = sc Minnow SC (carnivore) Primary Consumer = pc Mayfly Laura PC (herbivore) Producer = P Dragonfly nymph SC (carnivore) Conventional approaches to estimating protective ecotoxicological thresholds of chemicals, i.e. Which ground dwelling insects live in this area? But that same dead oak tree is food for more insects, which means more meals for woodpeckers. People and cities usually don't come to mind when ecology is mentioned. Vallisneria is a submersed (underwater) native species in the Hudson River. All of the interconnected and overlapping food chains in an ecosystem make up a food web. Students will know how temperature affects dissolved oxygen and be able to create a graph showing this relationship. Students will know what lives in the Hudson River, and will be able to create a food web drawing to represent the organisms living in the river. Optional, “Journey down the Hudson” PowerPoint is a good introduction to the Hudson River if your students need additional background. Extend: You may want to show two video clips from the American Museum of Natural history, “The Problem” and “Observation” as a preview of the topic of the next part of this lesson. Data was collected near Kingston, NY. Alive and green or dead and decaying, plants in the Hudson's shallow areas provide food and shelter for small fish, crabs, and macroinvertebrates, including insect larvae and tiny crustaceans. Food Web jschmied©2016 62. Blackfly larvae were the source of 56-80% of the mercury flowing to fish. The Food Web in the Hudson. Food Web In any ecosystem there are many food chains and, generally, most plants and animals are part of several chains. Students will know what trees live in their schoolyard and will be able to identify at least four trees. Primary producers – These are the organisms that produce the source of food for the community. Models can be created to represent complex aspects of the real world. Students should save their webs in order to add to them later. What foods do ants prefer and why might this be so? Students evaluate the environmental, political and economic consequences of their actions, and grapple with the difficult nature of making environmentally sound choices. the Tar-Pamlico River while addressing essential terminology for understanding the interdependence of plants and animals with their ecosystems including food chain, food web, energy pyramid, adaptation, decomposers, producers and consumers. In this case, we are looking at Poughkeepsie, a city in the Hudson Valley that is located right near the Hudson River. Which insects live on grasses and bushes in fields and lawns? The speed of water also varies and is subject to chaotic turbulence. What organisms are in all of the diagrams? These sites collect data, such as barometric pressure, precipitation, relative humidity, air temperature, surface water temperature, wind direction, and wind speed. Large zebra mussels are no longer surviving, which has implications for much of the food web and the interactions between the food web and the abiotic components of the ecosystem. Any place is an ecosystem, and biodiversity studies can take place in a forest, stream, pond, or even cracks of the sidewalk. In order to help students understand the connections between water and air pollution through the concept of watersheds and airsheds, as well as understand the impacts of their decisions on human health and the environment, we have developed a game that allows middle and high school students to become decision makers in a hypothetical county. Which group of organisms is missing from the food web above? In this dataset, students can explore how air pollution has changed over time in the USA and in New York. Students will draw what they see. Students will define and classify resources from the Chesapeake Bay watershed in order to describe how each of these organisms interacts. Students will know how the zebra mussel invasion has changed the Hudson River and be able to use graphed data to explain the history of these changes. Students will be able to discuss habitat needs and feeding habits of specific macroinvertebrates and understand connections that exist between the aquatic and terrestrial ecosystem. Freshwater tidal wetlands are a unique ecosystem of the Hudson River estuary, and these lessons will help students understand their importance along with some of the challenges due to a changing climate. A product such as ‘Protoslo’ helps calm the organisms down, and is available for around $6 from any scientific supply company. Students will learn about salinity in the Hudson River Estuary and graph changes in salinity across time and space. What factors determine preferences for different seed types? Long term record of the temperature of the Hudson River at Poughkeepsie. Students will know what level of turbidity affects aquatic organism, and will be able to explain the results of an experiment to determine these levels. Fernald, S.H., N.F. Students will know how to recognize variability in hydrofracking data, and will be able to make an appropriate graph of provided turbidity data. Strayer, D.L., N.F. Agriculture version. In 2016, a select number of sites began to classify and count each piece of trash they pick up. A basic overview of invertebrates found in an aquatic ecosystem. Students will know the relationship between light and dissolved oxygen and be able to predict what will happen when a plant does not receive enough light. Pace, M.L., D.L. Organisms, live or prepared specimens, Part 1 Ongoing data collection continues to this day. Collaborative efforts can lead to increased understanding of the concepts. Students will know what level of salt concentration affects aquatic plants and/or animals, and will be able to explain the results of an experiment to determine these levels. Í@� These data come from the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) Battery Park monitoring station in New York City, and cover the years 1856-2014. Have students complete the student packet. Each living thing in an ecosystem is part of multiple food chains. River ecosystems (riverscapes) encompass ecological, social, and economic processes (ecosystem functions) that interconnect organisms (ecosystem structure), including humans, over some time period. These "biology briefs" provide a line drawing of common aquatic macroinvertebrates, plus information on their feeding habits. Air pollution from traffic can be a major problem in many parts of the world. In this module, students will learn about the history of PCB's in the Hudson, how PCB's get into the fish we eat, and what has been done to remove PCB's from the Hudson River. [Location: Cary Institute, Millbrook NY]. Effects of an invasive bivalve on the Students will be able to collect and analyze leaf litter data from different trees, and be able to make a prediction about why the amount of leaf litter differs between species. Students make food webs of their study site, then trace how a change in one population could affect other populations within the web. An overview of nitrogen pollution, focusing on nitrate-nitrogen, the compound most commonly tested with school kits. Energy Flow in Ecosystems DRAFT. Using data from the Hudson River Environmental Conditions Observation System (HRECOS) you can look at the impact of drought in the Hudson River by comparing two years with different PDSI scores. Other examples of a freshwater biome food web may include: A river musk rat eating a brown bass which eats algae which has photosynthesis. The sun is the starting source of energy for CVNP’s ecosystems. OR If using live specimens from cultures (purchased or otherwise obtained), the following are needed: Background Information for Teachers: The Hudson Primer: The Ecology of an Iconic River by Dr. David Strayer. Point out micro- and macro-invertebrates. 274 0 obj <> endobj From 1999-2015, researchers and students aboard the sloop Clearwater tracked the populations of over 100 aquatic macroinvertebrate species - mostly fish and crabs - in the Hudson River using trawl nets. There are many monitoring sites along the Hudson River. Includes the major groups of living things in ponds, and a short discussion of eutrophication, along with the importance of detritus. Students will know how Hudson River tomcod evolved resistance to PCBs and be able to critically compare the way different news outlets choose to tell a scientific story. Students will evaluate available resources in order to create and maintain a native species environment. Samples were collected from the East Branch of the Wappinger Creek on Cary Institute grounds in Millbrook, NY. Understanding how human activity influences the Hudson is a prime concern for the maintenance of the river, especially as the human population grows. These data show the salinity (salt) levels at seven sites along the Hudson River. This dataset will allow you to explore connections between tick populations, their mouse hosts, and the acorns that feed the mice. Students learn that soil is a complex mixture of rock, organic material, and water, along with air spaces. These data show the populations of Atlantic silversides, blue crabs, ctenophora (comb jellies), striped bass, banded killifish, pumpkinseed fish, spottail shiners, and sunfish compared to dissolved oxygen (DO) in the Hudson River. How does salt pollution impact plants & animals? School sites are designed for humans and human activities. increased mortality of an invasive mussel. (Preparation information is located below), Prepared slides or live specimens of phytoplankton: diatoms, chlorophyceae (often called green algae), cyanobacteria; and zooplankton: rotifers, cladocerans (if you can get more than one species of cladoceran, that would be great; the most abundant in the Hudson is Bosmina freyi), copepods (the major forms are Cyclops and copepod nauplii-these are juvenile or young forms). This dataset shows their results for tomcod, striped bass, rainbow smelt, and American shad. The Hudson's ecosystem is connected by the streams, rainfall, runoff and seepage to the forest, atmosphere, and groundwater systems that are in its watershed and airshed. The DEC collected a variety of fish in the spring, summer, and early fall when eggs, larvae, and juveniles are more plentiful. h�b```�c��� ce`a�8��̣tr��Kfw�5�K&9\��v���r�D����~L;tI'M�:�Y���Z,���=���cJ,I]�x�e�]�[&�]������K���h����}�k@Ƹv� ��0_L2g�E�T �� Which soil and leaf litter-dwelling organisms live here? Students will learn to use "hedging language" in discussing results. Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences, 61:924-941. Each team will examine graphs showing population data for their organism. How big is it? Discuss possible future changes in zebra mussel class sizes, organism populations, or abiotic factors.Extend: For a more in-depth analysis of the changes in different population groups in the Hudson, use the lesson called “Graphing Zebra Mussel Data” in the Invasive Species module of the Changing Hudson Project curriculum. These data are part of a long-term record from the Cary Institute of Ecosystem Studies, showing the change over time of different components of the Hudson River ecosystem in response to the zebra mussel invasion. Students will know that changing the abiotic factors of an ecosystem affects the organisms living in the ecosystem, and will be able to explain at least two ways in which salt affects organisms from different ecosystems. Students should now complete the questions for Part 2 in their packets. Students will know that environmental changes act as a selection filter and be able to explain these processes using the example of cadmium resistance in Foundry Cove mud worms. Have them note the scale. The food web. This will provide information and review about the food webs you will discuss with students. Cary Institute of Ecosystem Studies Summary Students participate in a series of activities to learn how an invasive species has changed the Hudson River food web and be able to explain the impact of the introduction of the zebra mussel on the food web. Make sure that these components are included. Simplified food-web structure in the Waikato River ecosystem. The arrows indicate what eats what. A food web (or food cycle) is the natural interconnection of food chains and a graphical representation (usually an image) of what-eats-what in an ecological community.Another name for food web is consumer-resource system.Ecologists can broadly lump all life forms into one of two categories called trophic levels: 1) the autotrophs, and 2) the heterotrophs. Does the amount of light affect the plant respiration and CO2 production rate? 2004. Part 1: Identifying Food Chains in a Hudson River Food Web. Evaluate: To complete page 3 in their packet, students should use the Hudson River Food Webs Reading assignment. As dams and impassable culverts are removed to restore migration corridors, we often assume that the entire ecosystem will benefit, including boosting the growth of game fish. A basic introduction to chloride and salt pollution. Students will know how the zebra mussel has changed the Hudson River ecosystem and be able to explain how a biotic change affects the abiotic conditions in the Hudson River. Through field checking a map or photo scientists can come up with a more accurate map of the area studied which reflects change over time. Does the total number of insect species differ in different parts of a forest stand? Students use topographic maps to determine watershed boundaries and better understand how watersheds are delineated. Students should begin to fill in the ‘1993-2004’ column in the chart “Trends in the Living and Non-Living Environment” in their packets as their classmates provide the information. Students will know the benefits of different types of plants in each tidal zone of a tidal marsh wetland and will be able to design a wetland based on specific provided requirements. They will also know that the Hudson River food web is changing in response to the zebra mussel invasion, and will be able to make predictions about how native organisms will be affected by this invasion. Students will know how a stream changes during and after a storm and be able to create and/or interpret graphs demonstrating these changes. Extend: Show the video clip “Results” from the American Museum of Natural History. This unit introduces students to the ecosystem concept using the Hudson River ecosystem. This dataset contains information on the number of European honey bee colonies, the use of pesticides, and the acres of Bt Corn planted in the USA since 1939. A map depicting the story of PCBs in the Hudson River. Fish migrations inject nutrients into Great Lakes tributaries, helping to fertilize river food webs. Students will understand how variation in data and sample size help us to make a claim. When we think about the water cycle, most of us think of a diagram with arrows moving from alpine peaks into the big, blue ocean. The life forms that live as part of the food web in the ocean ecosystem will be adapted to life in a salty environment. As steps along the way, students create a three dimensional model of the school site based on their initial field observations. 1. A food chain shows how a group of living things get their food. If you think of precipitation as the rain above the tree canopy and throughfall as the rain below the canopy, then plotting the two together gives you an idea of how the canopy is altering the chemistry of the rain. Strayer, D.L, and L.C. predicted no-effect concentrations (PNEC), for an entire ecosystem are based on the use of assessment factors to extrapolate from single-species toxicity data derived in the laboratory to community-level effects on ecosystems. Long term data from the Hudson River showing both dissolved oxygen and fecal coliform bacterial counts. Students will know that fungi and microbes are present on leaves and will be able to identify and quantify bacterial and fungal colonies. Scientists use models to study complex real world situations. Student teams will look at the first two graphs during Part 2 of the lesson and look at the final graph during Part 3. What eats it? Students will know the history of nutrient loading in the Hudson River, the consequences, and be able to recommend ways to reduce the levels of nitrogen and phosphorous in the future. Riverine ecosystem, any spring, stream, or river viewed as an ecosystem. The “Meet the Scientists” link brings you to both readings and videos. When people think of ecology, they usually imagine studies out in the country. Students will know how an aquatic ecosystem works and be able to collect representative organisms, identify the organism and its trophic level, and create a food web of a local aquatic ecosystem. The Hudson River Estuary, J. Levinton and J. Waldman, editors. In the ecosystem of rivers, the food chain is short e.g. Target audience: Years 4 and up What is a ‘wetland’ exactly, and why are they so important? Using aerial photographs Land Classification to determine what covers the schoolyard Land cover percentage (Building on skills from “Candyland Elementary School Land Use” lesson). Students will know how temperature affects aquatic organisms' metabolism and be able to graph data and interpret results from an experiment examining metabolic effects. Students will know how their schoolyard is used by different people throughout the day, and will be able to create a map showing these patterns. Strayer, D.L., K.A. Lower level students will focus on predator-prey relationships, or one-step relationships, such as the fact that if a new mussel is introduced, there will be fewer phytoplankton in the river. Students will know how streams become polluted with salt using first and second hand data, and will be able to make a prediction about future chloride levels in their local watershed stream. Students complete their work for GROW by working in groups to create advertisements that teach the public about nutrient cycling, and GROW's research and products. Long term record of minimum annual temperature at Poughkeepsie (air). In this module, students learn how to monitor a local waterway for changes in water quality, and how the Hudson River has changed over time due to pollutants including nitrates, phosphates, and salt. A food chain describes how different organisms eat each other, starting out with a plant and ending with an animal. 1210. Students will know that aquatic communities change composition based on vegetation types and be able to explain the differences. How do two species differ in the amount of transpiration that takes place from their leaves over the course of 1 week? Litter was collected from two marsh plants: Phragmites australis (common reed) and Typha angustifolia (cattail). The Hudson River Environmental Conditions Observing System (HRECOS) is a network of real-time monitoring stations along the Hudson River. Researchers at the Cary Institute set up sample plots on the Cary Institute grounds in Millbrook, NY. All the mini-graphs can be printed on cardstock or laminated for easy reuse. (Note: Since it is difficult to count phytoplankton because they are so small, scientists have used measurements of chlorophyll instead. 303 0 obj <>/Filter/FlateDecode/ID[<99BAB3524B08C0438B58A7E590CEEF21>]/Index[274 52]/Info 273 0 R/Length 132/Prev 368093/Root 275 0 R/Size 326/Type/XRef/W[1 3 1]>>stream Organisms in food webs are commonly divided into trophic levels. Hydrofracking is a gas production technique where the natural gas is extracted from rock deep underground using a cocktail of water and chemicals (fracking fluid), injected with high pressure. The enormous number of zebra mussels efficiently and rapidly filtered the Hudson River, increasing the transparency of the water, allowing sunlight to penetrate more deeply. How does the Hudson River ecosystem respond to different types of changes over time? This food web shows the role played by invertebrates (animals without backbones), such as mayflies and stoneflies, in freshwater ecosystems. How do populations change in the Hudson River ecosystem, and how do these changes affect the larger ecological community? Students recommend who GROW should hire as a scientist after reviewing three job applications. These creatures are in turn eaten by larger fish, birds, and other predators. Pace, M.L., S.G. Findlay, and D. Fischer. Students will know what lives in the Hudson River, and will be able to create a food web drawing to represent the organisms living in the river. The graphs display data collected by scientists over approximately twenty-five years. In this dataset, students can explore how the prevalence of Lyme disease has changed over time in the Northeast. Students will decide whether their local stream or the larger Hudson River are healthy, using chemical and physical characteristics, and be able to collect data to support or negate their hypotheses. (Red vertical lines on the graphs mark 1992, the year when zebra mussels began to be prevalent in the estuary, and 2005, when a major shift in zebra mussel populations was recorded by scientists.) Photos of commonly found invertebrates in leaf litter. The incredible wealth of diversity on our planet is something to be celebrated with students of all ages! A dataset containing various sources of salt pollution for the watershed of the East Wappinger Creek in Millbrook, NY. endstream endobj startxref Groups from Manhattan to Troy collect a variety of river data including salinity, dissolved oxygen, turbidity, and fish abundance. This unit is unique in that it focuses on collecting long term data about the changes in the populations of macroinvertebrates. A school site consists of both living and non-living things. Have groups share their food webs. River ecosystems (riverscapes) encompass ecological, social, and economic processes (ecosystem functions) that interconnect organisms (ecosystem structure), including humans, over some time period. Distribute the first graphs for 1987-1991. 3. Complete the chart by using the slides in the PowerPoint. The United States Geological Survey (USGS) has a network of real-time monitoring stations located along many waterways in New York State. There are separate versions of the lessons that are appropriate for middle school and high school students. River Ecosystem River ecosystems are prime examples of loticecosystems Loticrefers to flowing water It is a running water ecosystem It has water current. Field checking is the process of verifying a land use map by physically checking the schoolyard. Like all other ecosystems, the food chains in the Amazon have 5 different components: 1. Air quality refers to the health and safety of the atmosphere and is determined based on the amount of pollutants in the air. ), barnacles (Balanus sp. Students will understand the process of hydrofracking and will be able to use a short article to explain the benefits and drawbacks, focusing on turbidity. Heart of an Ecosystem Introduction to the Hudson: Journey down the river, Introduction: Creating a Woodland Study Plot, Invasive Species Independent Research Report, Invertebrates in Plants on Hudson River Shorelines, Investigating a Hudson Freshwater Tidal Wetland, Investigating local sources of salt pollution, Key to Common Pond Invertebrates of the Hudson Valley, Water & Watersheds Biodiversity, Long-Term Environmental Monitoring at the Cary Institute, Long-Term Hudson River Fish Surveys (NYSDEC), Lower Hudson with Submerged Aquatic Vegetation, Mapping a Daily Path Through the Schoolyard, Marathon Battery Contaminated Fish Article, Maximum Annual Temperature at Poughkeepsie, Minimum Annual Temperature at Poughkeepsie, Mosquitoes in Two Different Pond Habitats, New York State Sea Level Rise Task Force Report, Outdoor Study Stations-performance assessment, Oxygen Levels and Invasive Aquatic Plants, Paleobotany: Hudson Valley Pollen from the Ice Age & Beyond, Paleoclimate of the Hudson Valley -- Historic plant communities, PCBs in Hudson River Fish Reading Middle School, Pharmaceuticals found in the Hudson River Estuary, Pollution drives evolution in the Hudson River, Population Survey of Human Use of Schoolyard, Primary Productivity in the Hudson River Estuary, Biodiversity Schoolyard Ecology Water & Watersheds, Real-Time Hudson River Conditions (HRECOS), River and Estuary Observatory Network (REON), Riverkeeper Sweep: Trash Cleaned from Hudson River Shorelines (2016-2017), Salt Levels in the Hudson River (Snapshot Day), Salt Pollution in a Hudson River Tributary, School Woodland Biodiversity - Conclusions and Discussions, Small Watershed Ecology Assessment Project, Spring Bird Migration Dates in Dutchess County, Storm Impacts on Water Chemistry in a Hudson River Tributary, Stream Chemistry Monitoring in the Wappinger Creek (1985-2016), Stream Invertebrate Drawings & Feeding Guide, Hudson River Ecology Schoolyard Ecology Water & Watersheds, Biodiversity Hudson River Ecology Schoolyard Ecology, Testing Conditions that Promote Decomposition, The Bag That Wouldn't Go Away- Performance Assessment, The Basics: Introduction to Water Quality, The Hudson Valley: A Social-Ecological System, The Impact of Drought on the Hudson River, The Plane in the Sky: School from an Airplane, The White-Footed Mouse, Peromyscus leucopus, Traffic, Air Pollution, and Human Demographics in New York, Tree Canopies and Precipitation Chemistry in a Forest, Water Bugs in Native and Invasive Plant Beds Near Kingston, Weather: How could storms affect streams?
2020 river ecosystem food web