Gilbert Point Alaska's Hubbard Glacier advancing 7 feet per day! Climate scientist Elmer Fudd commented: “Be vewy afwaid!” …, Svalbard has many surging glaciers. Which is it? Moraine dam is shown in Figures 7a and 7b. Processes, Information “Projections”, so loved by CAGW, could be abbreviated to PCP’s or “probably crap predictions”. Love the expression ‘defies climate change’. Seasonal variations of up to 200 m have been also been observed. 1. However, by May 2002 the glacier once again began pushing up sediments above sea level and continued advancing toward Gilbert Point, blocking Russell Fjord by mid‐June. Because of inherent dangers associated with a calving face, we remained at least 100 m or farther from terminus ice cliffs NOS surveys were even more conservative, keeping at least 0.25 km from calving faces.  The continued advance of Hubbard Glacier guarantees that Russell Fjord will be closed again [Trabant et al., 1991; 2003a].  Bathymetric charts of the Gilbert Point area derived from the NOS 1977 and 1999 surveys and from our own surveys in 2002 and 2004 are shown in Figure 8. Yes, the glacier is gliding downhill on a lubricating film of liquid water, presumably from melted ice. Haenke Island – The climate station at Haenke Island is damaged beyond repair and is scheduled for replacement. A handful of Alaska glaciers are advancing and a few of those are getting bigger, but those are the exceptions. Thus any changes blocking basal sliding would be immediately reflected in the surface velocity. Variations of erosion rates on shorter timescale cannot be expected to be resolved with this method. (/sarc). In terms of a closure, the advanced position of the glacier around Gilbert Point indicates that if a closure is to occur in the future the mechanism will be significantly different than previous closures (1986, 2002).” Hubbard advanced to within 70 m of Gilbert Point in July and showed signs of a more advanced position within Disenchantment Bay and Russell Fjord than in previous years. Related to Geologic Time, Mineralogy In French cantons in Switzerland they still have archaic usage (septante, huitante, nonante (IIRC) for soixante-dix, quatre-vingt, quatre vingt-dix [70, 80, 90] Come to think of it Shakespeare is 16thC and it is, to some English speakers, almost unintelligible. The captain ofour ship, the Celebrity Millenium was great (a wonderful sense of humour). Its the heat that is making the glacier flow faster;) The Hubbard Glacier is the most famous growing glacier. We used a narrow beam (6°) 1 kW depth sounder to measure water depths in the vicinity of Gilbert Point on 23 August 2002, 9 days after the outburst started and then annually in late summer through 2005. Check out the statistics: 76 miles long, 6 miles wide where the glacier meets the ocean, and it stands 350′ above the water, with 250 ‘ lurking below the waterline. We attribute these anomalies and the fact that 16 years elapsed between closures to submarine melting and mechanical calving driven by seasonal changes in water temperature and to a deep water channel. Temporal and spatial changes in water depth reflect deposition or erosion of proglacial sediments, which in turn can lead to increased or decreased terminus stability. The image shows a close-up of the glacier’s terminus on that day. During the intervening years, glacier advance averaged only 6 m yr−1 toward Gilbert Point [Ritchie et al., 2006], much less than predicted and much less than elsewhere along the terminus. http://www.rogerfromnewzealand.wordpress.com. There is something in nature on this planet that the “experts” don’t blame on the magic molecule CO2. The mighty Hubbard – the continent’s biggest tidewater glacier covering 1,350 square miles and standing 350 feet tall – is growing larger by the day. Geophysics, Marine February 7, 2012 – Laser Ranging Update  The first visible sign that closure was imminent was the emergence of proglacial sediment above water in front of the glacier terminus, visible on 2 May 2002. While glaciers in southern Alaska were advancing during the Little Ice Age, Hubbard Glacier underwent a dramatic retreat [Barclay et al., 2001]. Gilbert Point – The Automated Laser ranging system at Gilbert Point was replaced in late August with a new updated system. Thanks. Brett. Kind of like spending money to reinforce the dikes in New Orleans. Journal of Geophysical Research: Earth Surface. It seems that the mini glaciers in Glacier National Park get a lot of press because they are retreating, but Hubbard doesn’t get any press, even though it’s the largest tidewater glacier in North America. And so we are presented with the difference between Science vs Religion, Hah… autocorrect incorrectly corrects “correct” into “correction”… Planets, Magnetospheric Solving the coupled equations (2)-equations (2)–(4) and attempting to fit w(t) to observations also revealed that sediment erosion rates in the moraine were quite slow (compared to typical values listed in WO97) and that these rates are not constant. Ice upstream of the dam came within 10 m of the rock wall and threatened to also close the gap there. The terminus is grounded on a submarine moraine that lies about 90 m below sea level (bsl) in Disenchantment Bay and Russell Fjord [NOAA, 2000]. The Army Corp of Engineers’ Hubbard Glacier website for has some great photos of the advancing behemoth. Similar to Hubbard glacier is Brüggen Glacier in Chile in the southern hemisphere. The derived sediment erosion rates are quite robust with regards to the various parameters in equations (14a) and (14b). This would include Antarctica, Greenland, Arctic islands, South America and Alaska. ), Aussie State Tasmania Declares itself 100% Renewable Energy, Roger Pielke Jr.'s 2020 Hurricane Season Recap, EXPOSED: Return of Sue-and-Settle: State AGs, DC Swamp Preparing Biggest End-Run in History — “Green New Deal” with No Legislation, No Rulemaking Process, Just a Sweetheart Consent Decree, Climate Emergency! Some tributaries of the glacier were also reported to have surged in 2001/02 (K. Echelmeyer, personal communication, June 2002) so perhaps surges could have been a contributing factor during the 2002 closure, although direct evidence is lacking. The moraine at the drainage channel was 14 m asl. - Alaska (Mt.  Most studies of glacier‐dammed lakes have focused on ice marginal freshwater lakes [e.g., Walder and Costa, 1996; Anderson et al., 2003] or subglacial geothermal lakes [e.g., Björnsson, 2002] (see also Roberts  for a review). ↑National Park Service: Hubbard Glacier: Geology in Action! The jagged curve is derived from lake level measurements, and the smoothed curve is the modeled discharge (. That’s not what the guy on the cruise said. Given the current rates of sediment accumulation it may take another ten years for sediments to fill the gap to 1999 levels (Figure 9). Hubbard Glacier is an excellent example of how a tidewater glacier can behave asynchronously with neighboring glaciers and independently of climate. U.S. Geological Survey, abgerufen am 21. Only a small remnant of the moraine remained above water in the aftermath. She is going home, to die. And, naturally, they will find that a collapse is imminent, but they need to drill more holes so they can observe the collapse to better understand global warming. David C. Finnegan/CRREL Growing. NASA image of the Day - The Advance of Hubbard Glacier The manuscript greatly benefited by reviews from N. Iverson, J. Walder, M. Funk, and H. Björnsson. “This is all to be expected as when glaciers melt, they speed up and so this is why its advancing and getting thicker…”.  The time interval for vectors in Figure 7c spans only 2 days, from ∼1630 on August 14, during the peak of the outburst to ∼1630 August 16, only a day after the flood had dissipated. Contours near the ice cliffs are therefore extrapolated from the nearest soundings. Rapid erosion of soft sediments by tidewater glacier advance: Taku Glacier, Alaska, USA, Journal of Geophysical Research: Earth Surface, http://ak.water.usgs.gov/glaciology/hubbard/, http://www.oceanservice.noaa.gov/dataexplorer/, end of outburst projected from discharge curve. ALASKA’S HUBBARD GLACIER IS STILL ADVANCING, BUT AT A SLOWER PACE. The post outburst ice flow regime overall appears to have resumed its predam pattern, with velocity gradients and directions similar to Figure 7a. The Laser ranging system at Gilbert Point is temporarily off-line until further notice. Hubbard Glacier, one of the few growing glaciers in Alaska, advances toward Gilbert Point north of Yakutat in summer 2009. June 22, 2015 at 5:02 pm : Okay then Philip, now that increased meridional airflow is likely causing more cloudiness in mid to high latitudes: what sort of lag time might we expect before those glaciers lengthen again? Additional evidence for seasonal warming at these depths comes from Reeburgh et al. Perhaps I shouldn’t rush through an article on the way out the door. And don’t forget shooting the dogs.  Discharge was relatively slow at first but sufficient to begin eroding the moraine dam. It almost seems like they were poking a stick at the settled science crowd. Please note: The publisher is not responsible for the content or functionality of any supporting information supplied by the authors.  The combination of deep channel, strong tidal currents and warm ocean temperatures can similarly account for the reason the terminus has failed to cross the gap and close the fjord. Continuation of the glacier's expansion is unlikely to change in the near future as a result of further climate change. Hubbard Glacier is a glacier located in eastern Alaska and part of Yukon, Canada, and named after Gardiner Hubbard.  Uncertainties in our velocity calculations are due to uncertainties in the estimates of feature elevation (±15 m), resolution of position (±0.5 to 3 m), and uncertainties in adjustments for differences in photo scale and orientation between photo sets. Our Yukutat, Alaska correspondent Frank "Skip" Ryman has updated his information for our readers concerning the advancing Hubbard Glacier that’s threatening the town where he’s the city manager. Equation (16) predicts somewhat higher melt rates than equation (15). It’s not stopped,it’s stunned. The 2002 outburst scoured the channel to depths of 60 m. We suspect that sediments must again accumulate to a sufficient level before another closure can take place because deep water inhibits glacier advance due to the effects of calving and submarine melting. All that summer, the new lake filled with runoff; its water level rose 25 metres (82 ft), and the decrease in salinity threatened its sea life. See Alaska's Hubbard Glacier advancing 7 feet per day! Around that same time, dam erosion proceeds to below sea level, and ice calving enlarges the channel laterally. The mainstream media seems to have somehow missed this. We saw the Hubbard Glacier while cruising on our Viking Orion cruise ship. We derived a discharge curve as shown in Figure 6 by differencing the water level data during the outburst period, using methods and fjord hypsometry described by Mayo . The 1986 event was the subject of several articles [Seitz et al., 1986; Mayo, 1988, 1989; Trabant et al., 1991; Krimmel and Trabant, 1992] and received widespread attention in the press. See Glacier grows in cauldron of Mt. ‘Peer-reviewed’ distinguishes scientists from those that aren’t but think they are. Once moraine material is pushed above water in front of a seasonally advancing terminus, it will effectively isolate the ice front from the ocean and thereby shut down the calving and submarine processes, allowing the glacier to advance unabated. Alaska's Hubbard Glacier advancing 7 feet per day! We obtained sediment erosion rates of ∼1–2 m h−1, temporarily increasing to ∼6 m h−1 (Figure 12). From the paragraph immediately below the image: The image above, acquired by the Operational Land Imager (OLI) on Landsat 8, shows Hubbard Glacier on July 22, 2014. No trends in severe weather. She can expect a knock on her door at 3 A.M. from the Climate Stasi. Am I missing something WGMS? “… presumably from melted ice.” Answer to: Is the Hubbard Glacier growing? This is totally the opposite of what the disciples of your religion tell us… “our projections/predictions/models are DATA that must be viewed as hard truth of what will come to pass.” Feeble brains or dishonesty–take your pick. A tidewater glacier is one that flows into the ocean. 3. Post outburst bathymetry documented that the glacier advance and the flood eroded the channel to depths of 60 m at Gilbert Point (Figures 8c and 9). (a) Portion of NOAA Chart 16761 showing channel as it looked in 1977–1978, depths in fathoms. A pulse of cooler water at its edge let part of the glacier gain some mass. Since measurements began in 1895, Alaska’s Hubbard Glacier has been thickening and steadily advancing into Disenchantment Bay. (3) What drives the seasonal changes in terminus position? Tidewater glacier dynamics can add additional complexity to the evolution and destruction of dams and the observations at Hubbard Glacier allow us to examine various factors involved including calving and submarine melting and their dependence on water depth, ocean temperature, tidal currents, and sediment mobilization. NMFS vertical air photo mosaic of Gilbert Point dam (a) on 7 June 2002 and (b) on 7 July 2002. Really awesome! The Battle for the Truth about Global Warming, “…invaluable” – Steven F. Hayward, The Weekly Standard, “…changed the world and is one of the most influential resources on global warming. Any chance you could provide a list of ‘decent journals’? Outburst flood forecasting by monitoring glacier-dammed lake using satellite images of Karakoram Mountains, China. Global Warming stuns very easily. An often‐referenced empirical AAR (accumulation to total area ratio) value for a glacier in steady state is 0.65–0.70 [Paterson, 1994].  In the 10 day period following the outburst, upstream ice speeds increased to predam levels and flow generally returned to its predam pattern of flow. New headline: We visited Hubbard Glacier, located in Yakutat Bay in Southeast Alaska. See Alaska's Hubbard Glacier advancing 7 feet per day! These surveys serendipitously overlapped with the 2002 damming of Russell Fjord. Ice calving had widened the channel to ∼230 m by the next day (Table 1 and see Figure 7d). Furthermore, a realtime camera system has been installed at Gilbert Point to collect and transmit visible images every 3 hours and thermal images every 8 hours. And don’t even get me started on their average weight! It’s also been very active in the past, having had two major surges in the past 30 years. Based on the current rate of advance at the gap, Stearns estimated that closure could occur by 2043. The discharge records for the 1986 and 2002 outbursts differ significantly and reflect differences in lake height (26 m versus 15 m) and dam types (ice versus moraine). The image below, acquired on July 13, 2002 by the Enhanced Thematic Mapper Plus on Landsat 7, shows the glacier the last time that it sealed the fjord. By 2002 the sediments had presumably become so shallow that the spring advance was able to push these sediments upward above sea level, thereby cutting off calving, and also forward onto and partially overriding the sill during the closure (Figure 8). These speeds were quite high, ranging from 12 to 4 m d−1 in a N – S gradient Given that ice thickness within 1 km of the terminus was likely 200 to 400 m [Trabant et al., 1991], most (≥ 90 %) of the measured surface ice velocity must be attributable to basal sliding. Lastly, understanding the dynamics in this region is important for assessing the factors facilitating another closure, the timing of the next closure, and the stability of any future dams. ________________________________________ If you’re wondering what the largest glacier in Alaska is, you got it. let’s anticipate the alarmists response to this “dead parrot resting”: http://rhymeafterrhyme.net/remember-the-nineties-whatever-happened-to-global-warming/, Don’t be silly! ‘CAGW’ is a term invented by skeptics, and is not used by any scientists. Submarine glacial sediments emerging from the sea May 20, 2002. Fruitcake would be a good word to describe that thinking.  Between 1986, and 2002 the rate of glacier advance averaged ∼ 30 m yr−1 everywhere along the terminus except at Gilbert Point. Recent Posts. Photo about Hubbard Glacier showing growth layers and mountains in the background. With the barrier to basal sliding removed, the terminus ice immediately responded to these new conditions and quickly accelerated. It’s also been very active in the past, having had two major surges in the past 30 years. When you’re sailing towards Hubbard Glacier on a sunny day, the deep blue of its face looks like the blue of the furthest stars. Hubbard Glacier Calving, on July 4th 2006. (2015) Glaciological and marine geological controls on terminus dynamics of Hubbard Glacier, southeast Alaska. Both of these things are bad in the dyspeptic world of alarmism. I think they could. Traveling by sea, cruisers experience the awe-inspiring sight of the towering frozen river of blue ice. Processes in Geophysics, Atmospheric Isn’t that how climate-science-by-press-release works? During the initial stages of 2002 dam formation, ice speeds and flow patterns were nearly identical to those reported for flow in this region for summer 2001 [Trabant et al., 2003a; R. M. Krimmel, unpublished data, 1990s]. This is a list of glaciers existing in the United States, currently or in recent centuries.These glaciers are located in nine states, all in the Rocky Mountains or farther west. http://www.svalbardglaciers.org/surging_glaciers_other_glaciers.html. Dashed (solid) line shows glacier boundary from the first (second) photo date in each plot. Yellow lines indicate the location of the terminus on August 1, 1978, and on July 13, 2002. Objects, Solid Surface The advancement or retreat of a glacier’s terminus depends on the snowfall that melts down or flows from its catchment basin. Hubbard Glacier, Alaska: See 661 reviews, articles, and 1,110 photos of Hubbard Glacier, ranked No.9 on Tripadvisor among 890 attractions in Alaska. I saw the glacier during a 2012 cruise. Obviously, the lateral expansion of the channel was determined by ice calving rather than melting.  Hubbard Glacier, the largest temperate tidewater glacier in the world, has been advancing since 1895 AD and has now twice dammed 60‐km‐long Russell Fjord, once in 1986 and more recently in 2002. We believe that this sill acted as a sediment trap following 1986 and sediment accumulation behind the trap helped gradually fill the channel (see 1999 bathymetry, Figure 8b). Our examination of the 2002 event builds on these earlier studies and relies heavily on information gathered by a number of government agencies and private individuals as well as our own postoutburst investigations. Trabant et al. But at least they found their way into the headline for this article. Off the coast of Yakutat—200 miles NW of Juneau—Hubbard is certainly gigantic: it's more than six miles wide where it meets the ocean. I know French in Canada was 16th century French, although over the last two generations, modern French is being taught. The aerial photos included the glacier terminus and were taken periodically from early May through August including during and immediately after the outburst flood. For surveys in Figures 8b, 8c, and 8d, depths are in meters with 5 m contour interval, and coordinates are UTM, NAD 83 zone 7. September 2007. The Hubbard Glacier ice margin has continued to advance for about a century. Jakobshavn Glacier in western Greenland is notorious for being the world’s fastest-moving glacier. Just read the climate-gate emails for evidence that the peer review process is now horribly flawed in a number of formerly “decent journals”. However, the closure was temporary, as water pressure overpowered the encroaching ice and debris and burst through the natural dam, returning the fjord to normal levels.  Hubbard Glacier, located near Yakutat, Alaska (Figure 1), is the largest nonpolar tidewater glacier in the world and has advanced over 2.5 km during the last century. The glacier was then 190 m from Gilbert Point. Global temperature is “resting” (see Monty python dead parrot sketch). However, to our knowledge, Hubbard Glacier is the first historic instance of an advancing tidewater glacier damming a major waterway. Hubbard Glacier, Alaska: See 661 reviews, articles, and 1,110 photos of Hubbard Glacier, ranked No.9 on Tripadvisor among 887 attractions in Alaska. Twice in the past hundred years—in 1986 and again in 2002—the moraine has made contact with Gilbert Point and blocked the entrance to Russell Fjord. I cannot verify that this was an official growth rate. Dam erosion rates derived from the water level record. Increased rates occur about 13 hours after dam failure starts. On the Russell Fjord side, Trabant et al. Small Bodies, Solar Systems Figure 2: Percentage of shrinking and growing glaciers in 2008–2009, ... Hubbard Glacier is the largest of eight calving glaciers in Alaska that are currently increasing in total mass and advancing. Are their clothes more fashionable? 3. My goodness. Alaska's Hubbard Glacier advancing 7 feet per day! Journal of Geomagnetism and Aeronomy, Nonlinear (Memento vom 24.September 2008 im Internet Archive) ↑ USGS Report: Hubbard Glacier, Alaska: Growing and Advancing in Spite of Global Climate Change and the 1986 and 2002 Russell Lake Outburst Floods. 3 km3 of water flushed through the gap in a period of about 30 hours. With CO2 rising weve seen a general greening of the planet and record harvests. Oh-oh, she forgot to mention the magic words “climate change”, No funding for you! Late summer 2004 Russell Fiord water temperatures were comparatively uniform throughout the measured water column, averaging about 7°C. The advance of Perito Moreno Glacier, a lacustrine calving glacier in Argentina, has periodically blocked a large tributary arm of the lake with dam failures there producing outburst floods that are reported to have released 3 to 4 km3 of water [Skvarca and Naruse, 2006; Stueffer et al., 2007]. Researchers from CRREL, The National Snow and Ice Data Center (Boulder, Colorado) and the USGS Alaska Science Center (Anchorage) removed the previous laser scanning system and replaced it with an updated version of the system developed by CRREL. And we’re still awaiting Anthony’s paper on data treatment. Today, most glaciers are slowly receding, with one notable exception. My reaction too. They don’t seem to include some of the largest advancing glaciers in the world. The sill rises to within 10 m below MLLW and extends northward toward the glacier terminus. The outburst proceeded essentially in two stages: (1) relatively slow overtopping of the subaerial moraine and downward erosion at rates of 1–2 m h−1 with little amounts of lateral expansion due to ice calving, and (2) faster downward erosion of the submarine moraine (up to 7 m h−1) with a lateral expansion of the channel due to significant ice calving (∼7 m h−1). Thus monitoring of both bathymetry and glacier dynamics is warranted. (d) Channel depths 2 years after outburst. The surface elevation has also been slowly increasing, particularly at lower elevations, at rates of about 1–2 m yr−1 [Trabant et al., 2003a]. Moraine height continued to increase through July, keeping pace with rising lake level. All Antarctic glaciers outside the peninsula are north facing, so fit the general pattern.of retreat versus advance. Three cubic kilometers of water were released within 30 hours, with peak discharge reaching 55,000 m3 s−1 24 hours after the flood began. This acceleration resulted in strong extensional strain rates, which probably fractured and weakened the ice, thus contributing to the calving collapse and channel widening during and following the flood. Geophysics, Geomagnetism Located in Disenchantment Bay between Seward and Skagway, Hubbard Glacier is the largest glacier in North America. Glaciologists who have studied Alaska's ice for years say the opposite is true. Terminus and moraine boundaries were derived from all photo sets. “Walk toward the fire. This is of critical concern to local residents as a future closure could produce overflow and flooding south of Russell Fjord, potentially damaging lucrative fisheries and village infrastructures. [2003a] reported near‐terminus centerline speeds of 11.5 m d−1 during the summer of 2001 and seasonal velocity variations in the terminus lobe of up to 2 m d−1, slowing down in late summer. Photo dates and times are known to within a minute and therefore uncertainties in Δt are negligible. Perhaps the British spelled it with a ‘k’ 250 years ago? We wish to thank R. Johnson and the AK Department of Fish and Game for their generous logistics support, R. Gubernick (USDA Forest Service) for sharing lidar data, the USDA Forest Service, Yakutat District, the U.S. National Park Service, Yakutat office, and the people of Yakutat for sharing their photos and observations, and the U.S. National Marine Fisheries Service for providing us with digital copies of their summer 2002 vertical aerial coverage of Hubbard Glacier terminus. Furthermore, the glacier has an accumulation area that extends to very high altitudes and there are some indications of recent increased precipitation rates at high altitudes on nearby Variegated Glacier [Eisen et al., 2001]. The persistence of this sill despite outburst floods suggests that it is an erosion‐resistant bedrock reef. The water was crystal clear like glass with many small pieces of ice all around. The mighty Hubbard – the continent’s biggest tidewater glacier covering 1,350 square miles and standing 350 feet tall – is growing larger by the day. At Hubbard Glacier, water temperatures can fluctuate from as low as 3°C in early spring to as much as 10°C in late summer depending on water depth (Figure 10).  A cross section of submarine topography in the channel based on the 1999 and 2002–2005 annual bathymetric surveys is shown in Figure 9. This happened roughly 13 hours after the start of the outburst. Why Hubbard Glacier, Alaska is Better. See Alaska's Hubbard Glacier advancing 7 feet per day! Given that tidal corrections in the vicinity of Gilbert Point have likely changed somewhat over time since the 1999 NOS survey, overall uncertainties of our water depth surveys are about ±1.5 m.  Some studies indicate that ocean water temperatures can play a significant role in the mass balance and stability of a tidewater terminus through submarine melting [e.g., Walters et al., 1988; Motyka et al., 2003]. The first bathymetry of the Gilbert Point area after the 1986 outburst was made 2 years later in July 1988 [Trabant et al., 1991]. Hubbard Glacier remains an ongoing study of calving glacier dynamics for the scientific community. Rather than mark it, I think they expect us to realise that the picture is “now”. Hubbard is one of the few glaciers that is actually growing. By spring 2002, a subaerial push moraine developed as a result of shallow water, mobile sediments, and seasonal advance. These soundings were sparse but suggest scoured depths exceeded 35 m. In subsequent years, the glacier likely modified submarine topography by remobilizing and excavating glaciomarine sediments, redepositing them in proglacial areas [e.g., Hunter et al., 1996; Motyka et al., 2006]. Glaciologists who have studied Alaska's ice for years say the opposite is true. Hubbard Glacier is defying the global paradigm of valley or mountain glacier shrinkage and retreat in response to global climate warming. This was the time of year (up until August) that it seemed to advance on a regular yearly basis. Three questions arise from these observations: (1) What conditions prevent the glacier at Gilbert Point from advancing as rapidly as elsewhere? Hubbard Glacier, located in southeast Alaska, has an intriguing history; it retreated during the Little Ice Age when neighboring glaciers advanced and is currently advancing while neighboring glaciers recede [Barclay et al., 2001; Trabant et al., 2003; McNabb and Hock, 2014]. Or dig a canal to bypass Gilbert Point? I was on a cruise to this glacier in 2008 and we were told it was GROWING at 22 feet/day and that future cruises may be shortly banned from entering the bay due to the danger of the gap closing then breaking down, causing dangerous water flows. The collision of an advancing glacier with a rock wall is a rarely witnessed event, much less documented and quantified. Such surges or other flow instabilities can temporarily increase ice velocities of the main trunk glacier, and Mayo  suggested that the 1986 closure may have been triggered in part by a weak surge of the Valerie tributary. It's possible that the glacier could close the fjord by later this summer if the current rate speeds up, says Harris. Oceanography, Interplanetary Wildlife at Hubbard Glacier The edges of the iceberg (technically, bergy bits) are a great place for animal sightings. WHOAAA!!! The gradient between terminus and up‐glacier velocities shows that the near‐terminus ice was being subjected to strong extensional forces during the outburst. The difference between MLLW and mean sea level is about 2.2 m, estimated from the tide record at nearby Yakutat. The Hubbard Glacier is the most famous growing glacier. The discontinuity of the calculated erosion rates is due to a discontinuity in dB/dt, because, as described above, B was assumed constant until ice calving started and to then increase linearly afterward. We in fact observed undercutting of freshly calved ice faces at the water line by a meter or more over a period of a few hours during our late‐summer bathymetric surveys at Gilbert Point. Additional support was provided by the Geophysical Institute, University of Alaska. CRAZY BIG AVALANCHE @ 2:03 !! Validation of high-resolution GRACE mascon estimates of glacier mass changes in the St Elias Mountains, Alaska, USA, using aircraft laser altimetry. Part of Hubbard Glacier has been advancing into Disenchantment Bay for … It’s 10 years later, so where is the terminus now? “Recent Updates U.S. Geological Survey (2010, December) Hubberd Glacier, Alaska. In addition, the Gilbert Point terminus has advanced 100 m or more in the spring, only to retreat during the summer, well before the gap could be breached. Similar seasonal temperature changes of seawater correlated with seasonal changes in terminus position have been observed at LeConte Glacier [Motyka et al., 2003], at Columbia Glacier [Walters et al., 1988], and at other Alaskan fjords and bays with tidewater glaciers [e.g., Hooge and Hooge, 2002]. The findings, recently accepted for publication in the Journal of Geophysical Research, explain how the mechanics at the terminus override the influence of other climate fluctuations. 10 May 09 – This from climatologist Cliff Harris of the Coeur d’Alene Press. With nowhere to drain, runoff caused the water level in the fjord to rise rapidly. If you condemn peer review in general, you reject the modern day findings of all science, not just AGW. Der Hubbard-Gletscher ist ein Gletscher in der Eliaskette im US-Bundesstaat Alaska und dem Yukon-Territorium Kanadas.. Sorry, your blog cannot share posts by email. This Glacier is actually advancing (growing, the only one that still is by the way) so don't be too mad about the people being excited for the ice falling Then we can talk. Figure 7c thus captures the major reorganization that ice flow underwent during this 2‐day period in response to the rapidly changing conditions at Gilbert Point.  reported near terminus ice thickness of about 140 m with the bed ∼85 m bsl.  The discharge records for the 1986 and 2002 outbursts differ significantly and reflect differences in lake height ±26 m versus 15 m) and dam types (ice versus moraine). (b) Channel depths from 1999 NOAA hydrographic survey. Credits: NASA Earth Observatory images by Joshua Stevens and Jesse Allen, using Landsat data from the U.S. Geological Survey and Hubbard Glacier data provided by Marcy Davis of The University of Texas at Austin. However, glacier instabilities such as surges of tributaries could trigger an anomalously rapid advance and close Russell Fjord at any time regardless of water depth. We take the characteristic length to be ∼1 km, the approximate distance from the sill to Osier Island where the channel is the narrowest and currents strongest, and where past closures have occurred (Figure 8). Oh dear, how sad, never mind! Von seiner Quelle im Yukon-Territorium erstreckt sich der Gletscher über 122 km in die Disenchantment Bay und Yakutat Bay.Er ist damit der … If you do not receive an email within 10 minutes, your email address may not be registered, Figure 4 (10 August 2002) captures the full extent of the moraine and ice dam prior to the outburst. Share. Well, it’s proof of warming, of course : in this polar area it doesn’t meld ice, but it makes ice more fluid and advance quicker (instead of sticking to mountain flanks), hence the grow. Funny that the article didn’t reference this site: Happy Travelling! Water depth is thought to be a key factor in controlling tidewater glacier stability and calving rates appear to be at least partially a function of water depth [Post, 1975; Brown et al., 1982; Meier and Post, 1987; van der Veen, 1996; Motyka et al., 2003]. The Hubbard Glacier is the largest tidewater glacier in North America. The Hubbard Glacier is actually growing not receding as many other glaciers. A lot. I believe your position is not intellectually tenable. Stearns cautions, however, that these closure dates are “projections based on our current observations, and should be viewed with skepticism.”. Billy, Warren, et al, We therefore computed the combined uncertainty separately for each velocity using error propagation. A lot. Other data sources are high‐resolution (1:6000), low‐elevation vertical aerial photos that were acquired for the National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS) as part of their study of seal populations on icebergs in Disenchantment Bay. November 13, 2020 . Alas, her grandchildren will simply not know what ice is. But there's one image released this week by NASA that shows one Alaskan glacier that might actually be growing. Yellow lines indicate the location of the terminus on August 1, 1978, and on July 13, 2002. “That’s how the warming of the ocean translates,” Khazendar says. Upstream ice flow rapidly decelerated from 5 m d−1 to 1.5 m d−1 and flow diverged to either side of Gilbert Point. Open circles are measurements from this study. One estimate suggests that the fjord could permanently close by 2025. Save the Great British Bakeoff. Most are getting smaller, fast. Tidal and seasonal variations in calving flux observed with passive seismology. The captain ofour ship, the Celebrity Millenium was great (a wonderful sense of humour). The glacier advanced 40 m toward Gilbert Point during May and early June, pushing submarine moraine sediments forward with shoaling visible along a 0.5 km arc of the terminus (Figure 3a). A smaller ship, we could get quite close and see and hear ice calving. In fact, there was no anomalously high rate of advance anywhere else along the terminus in 2002 that would suggest a surge. Landsat image of terminus position of Hubbard Glacier on 1 October 2000. Growing. Wait for the warmies to actually argue that one, lacking the self-awareness to realise that they’re arguing the exact opposite behaviour on “retreating” glaciers. Water levels to rose 0.24 meters (0.8 feet) per day. On another note, when the authors used the phrase “should be viewed with skepticism “, did they use the “sk” word deliberately? (If it is thin, it can start floating and will not necessarily advance.).  Our initial modeling showed, in agreement with WC96, that lateral melting is very slow and is negligible during the duration of the flood. This tidewater glacier may be a bit of sleeping giant. Outbursts of the magnitude seen in the past from Russell Fjord also constitute a severe hazard to navigation in the bay. Hubbard Glacier, located in southeast Alaska, has an intriguing history; it retreated during the Little Ice Age when neighboring glaciers advanced and is currently advancing while neighboring glaciers recede [Barclay et al., 2001; Trabant et al., 2003; McNabb and Hock, 2014]. Bathymetric surveys of Gilbert Point channel. It would be money well spent compared to the billions spent on “climate Change”. Photo by Bruce Molnia, USGS. *How big is the Hubbard Glacier? Now about 66 km (41 mi) in length, it is the longest glacier in the southern hemisphere outside of Antarctica. in Modeling Earth Systems (JAMES), Journal of Geophysical Research However, ice flow upstream of the dam was apparently still readjusting to changes in terminus boundary conditions with speeds and directions at or below uncertainty levels (<1–3 m d−1). McKinley and Hubbard). @Philip Bradley (2) What conditions and events precipitated the eventual closure in 2002? These rates are much lower than the typical 10–100 m h−1 reported by WO97. The 2008/09 surge of central Yulinchuan glacier, northern Tibetan Plateau, as monitored by remote sensing. If this were retreating, I could google “Hubbard glacier,” and the first 50 or so article hits would be duplicate commentaries on the press release about global warming/climate change. Hubbard Glacier and Russell Fiord study area. Morainal bank progradation and sediment accumulation in Disenchantment Bay, Alaska: Response to advancing Hubbard Glacier. We also obtained the NOS 1999 survey data (http://www.oceanservice.noaa.gov/dataexplorer/) surrounding Gilbert Point and derived a bathymetric baseline to compare to post‐2002 outburst data. Raw water depth data were corrected for tidal stages based on tidal corrections made during a NOS survey of the area in 1999. The problem with your assertion dear Warren is that the scientists here advise the reader to view their projections with “skepticism”, which is the correction way to view projections.  Figure 7 shows the derived velocity fields for four time periods, spanning the time of dam building, dam collapse, and postoutburst recovery. THE HUBBARD GLACIER CONTINUES ITS ALARMING RETREAT – MORE EVIDENCE OF VERY-SCARY GLOBAL WARMING! March, and D.S. The glacier begins on Mount Logan, located in Canada, and stretches for 122 kilometers into the US. warrenlb, please try and compose a comment that doesn’t involve the words ‘peer reviewed’. In contrast, it has now advanced 2.5 km since 1895 [Trabant et al., 2003a], a period when glaciers in the surrounding region have been losing mass, some of them at increasing rates [Arendt et al., 2002; Larsen et al., 2007]. Now picture that entire river completely frozen, year round. Anthony is co-author of peer reviewed papers. and Petrology, Exploration Physics, Astrophysics and Astronomy, Perspectives of Earth and Space Scientists, I have read and accept the Wiley Online Library Terms and Conditions of Use, Integrated hydrologic and hydrochemical observations of Hidden Creek Lake jökulhlaups, Kennicott Glacier, Alaska, Rapid wastage of Alaska glaciers and their contribution to rising sea level, Holocene history of Hubbard Glacier in Yakutat Bay and Russell Fiord, southern Alaska, Jökulhlaups in Iceland: Prediction, characteristics, and simulation, Subglacial lakes and jõkulhlaups in Iceland, Flotation and retreat of a lake‐calving terminus, Mendenhall Glacier, southeast Alaska, Calving speed of Alaska tidewater glaciers, with application to Columbia Glacier, The marine record of the Russell Fiord outburst flood, Alaska, USA, The surges of Variegated Glacier, Alaska, U. S. A., and their connection to climate and mass balance, Glacier calving: A numerical model of forces in the calving‐speed–water‐depth relation, Fiord oceanographic processes in Glacier Bay, Alaska, Flux of debris transported by ice at three Alaskan tidewater glaciers, Photogrammetric data set, 1957–2000, and bathymetric measurements for Columbia Glacier, Alaska, Episodic reactivation of large‐scale push moraines in front of the advancing Taku Glacier, Alaska, Glacier changes in southeast Alaska and northwest British Columbia and contribution to sea level rise, Advance of Hubbard Glacier and closure of Russell Fiord, Alaska: Environmental effects and hazards in the Yakutat area, Geologic Studies in Alaska by the U.S. Geological Survey During 1987. ergo the white rippled area ahead (downstream/to the left) of the 2002 line, is where the ice is now.  Our chronology of the 2002 closure and outburst of Russell “Lake” is largely based on photos and observations obtained by multiple governmental agencies and private individuals that were monitoring the situation (http://www.fs.fed.us/r10/tongass/hubbard; http://ak.water.usgs.gov/glaciology/hubbard/), as well as our own observations. According to Leigh Stearns, a glaciologist at the University of Kansas, Hubbard’s advance is due to its large accumulation area; the glacier’s catchment basin extends far into the Saint Elias Mountains. It is the largest glacier on the northwestern edge of North America. Commentary by Jeffrey Simpleton Had the glacier at Gilbert Point advanced as rapidly as elsewhere, the next closure would have occurred within less then a decade, as Trabant et al. Our analysis was restricted to the regions close to Gilbert Point covering an area of about 3 km2 (Figure 2). These measurements were primarily made in eastern Disenchantment Bay (EDB). This baby is a whopper. Hubbard Glacier is nicknamed the “galloping glacier” because of its fairly rapid (for a glacier) descent toward Disenchantment Bay.  The time and width‐averaged glacier advance between 1986 and 2002 was 28 m yr−1 into Disenchantment Bay and 34 m yr−1 into Russell Fjord. Here are some facts about it! From NOAA Earth Observatory: Since measurements began in 1895, Alaska’s Hubbard Glacier has been thickening and steadily advancing into Disenchantment Bay. Here. Some material from contributors may contain additional copyrights of their respective company or organization. See Glaciers growing in Spain (Pyrinees) Antarctica growing colder - Ice expanding 18 Apr 09 - "Ice is expanding in much of Antarctica," says this article. The new system will also operate on the Iridium network versus the previous GOES system. Boxed area roughly defines region of ice flow analysis. As the summer season comes to an end and the Hubbard Glacier terminus has begun its seasonal retreat, we are busy putting the finishing touches on an exciting season of activity. The lateral extent of the 7 July 2002 ice and moraine dam (short‐dashed lines) is also shown. Are those ladies somewhat special? The ‘formal’ excuse is that melting surface water reaches the base of the glacier through moulins and lubricates the flow causing the glacier to advance and thin. These concerns all seem so silly. Alaska tidewater glacier terminus positions, 1948–2012. Knowledge of water depths is also essential for assessing stability of ice dams because ice flotation can trigger subglacial release of jökulhlaups [Björnsson, 1992, 2002; Roberts, 2005]. Based on the current rate of advance at the gap, Stearns estimated that closure could occur by 2043. Hmm. “Understanding Hubbard’s behavior is scientifically interesting,” Stearns said, “but it also has immediate consequences for the town of Yakutat.”. The 1986 outburst stripped the sediments from Gilbert Point to depths exceeding 35 m [Trabant et al., 1991] and redeposited them in Disenchantment Bay [Cowen et al., 1996], appreciably deepening the tidal channel and widening it to 300 m. Channel width was still about 300 to 400 m in 1999 and water depths averaged about 25 m.  Despite predictions of imminent glacier readvance and damming [Trabant et al., 1991], the next closure did not occur until 2002. Growing again. We therefore measured ocean water temperatures as a function of depth during each of our annual bathymetric surveys as well as on 23 April 2003 using submersible temperature loggers, accurate to ±0.2°C. Due to damage which occured last summer to the power system, a temporary power solution fitted in September has failed.  Heading on flanks of Mount Logan in Canada (5959 m), Hubbard Glacier covers an area of 3500 km2 and flows over 120 km to sea level where its 11.5 km wide terminus calves into Disenchantment Bay and Russell Fjord (Figures 1 and 2). Geophysics, Mathematical Composition and Structure, Atmospheric Variations in Alaska tidewater glacier frontal ablation, 1985–2013. Roger  A sparse set of radio echo soundings (RES) in 1986–1988 showed the glacier to be about 360 m thick along the centerline with the bed at 180 m bsl at a distance of 1 km upstream from the terminus [Trabant et al., 1991]. Alaska’s Hubbard Glacier is advancing moving toward Gilbert Point near Yakutat at an average of seven feet per day. I always wondered with all the talk about Global warming; we better took a look at it before it disappears. By signing up, you'll get thousands of step-by-step solutions to your homework questions. … Read more. But since it is advancing…there are a few articles but mostly stuff about cruises. Hubbard Glacier is the largest of eight calving glaciers in Alaska that are currently increasing in total mass and advancing.  Over the next 8 days following the outburst the strong extensional conditions rapidly diminished as upstream ice increased in speed (Figure 7d). Hubbard Glacier, Alaska: Growing and Advancing in Spite of Global Climate Change and the 1986 and 2002 Russell Lake Outburst Floods.  Table 1 provides a chronology of events during the 2002 outburst flood. Hubbard Glacier: Growing not Shrinking - See 661 traveler reviews, 1,110 candid photos, and great deals for Alaska, at Tripadvisor. Oh dear! The captain ofour ship, the Celebrity Millenium was great (a wonderful sense of humour). OMG! The scoured basin east of this sill is gradually filling in with sediment at a rate of about 4 m yr−1 although in 2005 the channel was still about 25 m deeper than in 1999 (Figure 9). However, a 1‐km‐long, 300‐m‐wide submerged sill to the west of Gilbert Point appears on NOS 1999 bathymetry and persists on all of our post‐2002 outburst bathymetry (Figure 8). The collision of the moraine against Gilbert Point was now not only impounding water in Russell Lake but also damming upstream ice and producing a flow divide. A small stream along the rock wall drained through the moraine from the newly formed lake. In May 1986, the Hubbard Glacier advanced into the sea, blocked the entrance to the Russell Fjord and hence formed Lake Russell. The picture is current, the yellow lines are historical. The Army Corp of Engineers’ Hubbard Glacier website for has some great photos of the advancing behemoth. Everyone else is…  Support for this work was provided in part by U.S. National Science Foundation grant OPP‐0221307, by NASA grant NAG5‐13760, and by U.S. National Park Service grant G‐2276. Dynamic Changes at Yahtse Glacier, the Most Rapidly Advancing Tidewater Glacier in Alaska. The captain ofour ship, the Celebrity Millenium was great (a wonderful sense of humour). THE WHOLE THING IS COMING DOWN!  This paper focuses on the region near Gilbert Point where two closures and outbursts have already occurred and where continued glacier advance threatens further closures of 60‐km‐long Russell Fjord (Figure 2). Hubbard Glacier, named for the first president of the National Geographic Society, Gardiner Hubbard, is massive. The Hubbard Glacier had better get on board! Physics, Solar Lovely plumage! @evanmjones However, three days of intense rain caused lake water to overtop the dam on 14 August 2002. Use the link below to share a full-text version of this article with your friends and colleagues. The reef west of Gilbert Point probably helped to trap these sediments.  The calculation of k was done with a smoothed water level record to avoid too much noise in dw/dt and particularly in d2w/dt2. just because there are enviro-wackos, that has nothing to do with the hundreds of professional Climate Scientists doing research and publishing. Stearns cautions, however, that these closure dates are “projections based on our current observations, and should be viewed with DENIAL.” However, during the outburst, the sill remained intact, deflecting flow toward the glacier front, creating a deep channel there.  Our limited temperature record suggests ocean temperatures in EDB undergo a seasonal variation, particularly at 50 m depth (Figure 10). There is special Automated Laser ranging system set up on the nearby island (Haenke Island) to monitor the proximity of the terminus of Hubbard to Gilbert Point. You see this in Greenland and the Himalayas.  Figure 13 plots the results for the above equations and our assumed values and gives the estimated melting rates. The new system utilizes a low-power two-way Iridium communication system that reduces overall power consumption and allows for increased data acquisition intervals (hourly). Hubbard Glacier, Alaska: Growing and Advancing in Spite of Global Climate Change and the 1986 and 2002 Russell Lake Outburst Floods U.S. Geological Survey Fact Sheet 001-03 January 2003 by D.C. Trabant, R.S. Not surprising – that part of NZ gets past 25C in summer which tends to have an effect on ice! To me it just reads like ‘here is my appeal to authority’. Enter your email address below and we will send you your username, If the address matches an existing account you will receive an email with instructions to retrieve your username. We have not measured tidal currents in the channel but our qualitative observations during bathymetry surveys suggest that they can reach several m s −1 at maximum flood and ebb. In the absence of calving (uc = 0) lateral erosion of the glacier dam is substantially slower than the average of 7 m h−1 observed during the event (Table 1), even when accounting for the relatively high water temperatures of 7°C, observed in Russell Fjord (section 4.5). The general pattern for glaciers is south facing (north facing in the southern hemisphere) glaciers are retreating, while north facing glaciers are advancing. The total age of the glacier is approximately 400 years. I had it drummed into my head first in school and second when my 12 year old daughters memorized a couple of plays. Regions westward along the terminus into Disenchantment Bay lacked shoreline control necessary for photogrammetric analysis. Bruce. You have to remember that these people are American, and…well you know. It amazes me that feeble brains on the CAGW side just can’t comprehend that if one side controls the peer-review process at a journal, then only the self-serving side of the argument will ever see the light of day in that journal. This tidewater glacier may be a bit of sleeping giant. Although both previous dams failed before water could breach the southern low point, future dams could hold and cause spillover. This shoal moraine succeeded in isolating the terminus from ocean water and channel currents, substantially reducing or eliminating submarine melting and calving losses, allowing the fjord to be closed. I was trying to think of any nails left to be driven home in this coffin this morning. If we assume a conservative value of ∼3 m s−1 for the daily average tidal current through the gap, and use the average of the two values for melt rate from Figure 13, we find that melt rates in the channel could range from a low of 1.3 m d−1 in early spring (3°C) to as much as 4.5 m d−1 in late summer (10°C), compared to average ice velocity of about 5 m d−1 along this section of the terminus. I mean, come on, they are still using Farenheit! But – but if its a tidewater then how can it be advancing at the same time as the current terrifying rise in global sea level. Hubbard Glacier, one of the few growing glaciers in Alaska, advances toward Gilbert Point north of Yakutat in summer 2009. This advance has now brought the terminus close to Gilbert Point at the entrance to 60‐km‐long Russell Fjord (Figure 2). Figure 2. The image above, acquired by the Operational Land Imager (OLI) on Landsat 8, shows Hubbard Glacier on July 22, 2014.The image shows a close-up of the glacier’s terminus on that day. Growing again. This divergence was visible at least 1 km upstream from the terminus. The Slow Advance of a Calving Glacier: Hubbard Glacier, AK is a summary of growth and advance measurements of Hubbard Glacier as presented at the International Glaciological Society symposium on Fast Glacier Flow held in Yakutat, Alaska, June 10-14, 2002. We used the earlier chart as a basis of comparison for later changes. and Chemical Oceanography, Physical Harbor seals ride the floes, basking in the sun; orca whales prowl just around the ice barrier, waiting for an unwary seal to come out to where the whales' sonar can reach. Since the 2002 outburst, the sill appears to be again acting as a sediment trap. http://rsgisias.crrel.usace.army.mil/hubbard/glaciers.html  Acquiring bathymetric data became a priority of our investigation in the aftermath of the 2002 event. Not in a decent journal. /sarc Number of times cited according to CrossRef: Glacier Variations at Xinqingfeng and Malan Ice Caps in the Inner Tibetan Plateau Since 1970. The Hubbard Glacier is actually growing not receding as many other glaciers. Terminus position in 1961 shown by black boundary. (There are also reports that it is loosing mass). @evanmjones November 06, 2020 . One weeps for humanity. 10 May 09 – This from climatologist Cliff Harris of the Coeur d’Alene Press. Flow changed direction toward Disenchantment Bay with the flow pattern returning to predam conditions within a few days of the outburst. About 2.2 m, estimated from the newly forming “ Russell lake '' Glacier that might be! 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