Hannibal arrived with 20,000 infantry, 6,000 cavalry, and an unknown number of elephants – the survivors of the 37 with which he left Iberia[70][157] – in what is now Piedmont, northern Italy. 1,200 talents was approximately 30,000 kg (30 long tons) of silver. [88] The Romans sent a fleet to evacuate their survivors and the Carthaginians opposed it at the Battle of Cape Hermaeum (modern Cape Bon); the Carthaginians were again heavily defeated. [202] They sailed from Croton[203] and landed at Carthage with 15,000–20,000 experienced veterans. [232], In 149 BC a Roman army of approximately 50,000 men, jointly commanded by both consuls, landed near Utica, 35 kilometres (22 mi) north of Carthage. Both wars ended with Roman victories; the Second when the Roman general Scipio Africanus defeated Hannibal, the premier Carthaginian general of the war, at the Battle of Zama, 160 kilometres (100 mi) south west of Carthage. The First Punic War (264–241 BC) was the first of three wars fought between Carthage and Rome, the two main powers of the western Mediterranean in the early 3rd century BC. [247] In the spring of 146 BC the Roman army managed to secure a foothold on the fortifications near the harbour. [196] After the Carthaginians failed to resupply the city, Syracuse fell in the autumn of 212 BC; Archimedes was killed by a Roman soldier. [138] This gave Carthage the silver mines, agricultural wealth, manpower, military facilities such as shipyards and territorial depth to stand up to future Roman demands with confidence. In the Battle of Cannae the Roman legions forced their way through Hannibal's deliberately weak centre, but Libyan heavy infantry on the wings swung around their advance, menacing their flanks. As the history of the conflict was written by Roman authors, they labeled it 'The Punic Wars'. [4][5] Polybius's work is considered broadly objective and largely neutral as between Carthaginian and Roman points of view. Second Punic War: Africa 219-201 BC Rome defeated Carthage as they created new naval tactics which involved hooking the enemy ship, then boarding the ship and attacking. Not only did they lose the war, but Carthage incurred the wrath of Rome, who again deemed its old foe a threat. [142] At some time during the next six years Rome made a separate treaty with the city of Saguntum, which was situated well south of the Ebro. That night the Carthaginian garrison escaped and the Romans seized the city and its inhabitants, selling 25,000 of them into slavery. The approximate extent of territory controlled by Rome and Carthage immediately before the start of the First Punic War. The main Roman camp was in a swamp, which caused an outbreak of disease during the summer. You will shortly receive a receipt for your purchase via email. Hannibal’s elephant charge was deflected back into the Carthaginian ranks, followed by a combined cavalry and infantry advance, which crushed Hannibal’s forces. The Carthaginian formation collapsed; Hannibal was one of the few to escape the field. His aim was to join his forces with those of Hannibal, but Hannibal was unaware of his presence. Read More on This Topic Punic Wars: First Punic War (264–241 bce) all people in carthage were murdered, the city was destroyed, the land was salted (hatred) how did the punic wars change rome. [248] At times the Romans progressed from rooftop to rooftop, to prevent missiles being hurled down on them. Fifty years later, Carthage was razed to the ground and the earth was salted, signifying Rome's final victory. [152] At the Battle of Rhone Crossing, Hannibal defeated a force of local Allobroges which sought to bar his way. [121][122] Hamilcar Barca, a veteran of the campaigns in Sicily, was given joint command of the army in 240 BC, and supreme command in 239 BC. Punic Wars DRAFT. [79], Taking advantage of their naval victories the Romans launched an invasion of North Africa in 256 BC,[82] which the Carthaginians intercepted at the Battle of Cape Ecnomus off the south coast of Sicily. How Hannibal beat the Alps but couldn’t beat Rome, Robin Lane Fox explains how the classical general, famed for his crossing of the Alps, was defeated because he couldn’t fulfil his promise of liberation from Rome…. [68], The war began with the Romans gaining a foothold on Sicily at Messana (modern Messina). [226] The Roman and allied Numidian cavalry drove the Carthaginian cavalry from the field. [172] Hasdrubal led Carthaginian cavalry on the left wing and routed the Roman cavalry opposite, then swept around the rear of the Romans to attack the cavalry on the other wing. [184] A second force, under Hannibal's youngest brother Mago, was meant to land in Italy in 215 BC but was diverted to Iberia after the Carthaginian defeat in Iberia at the Battle of Dertosa. [155][207] Both battles ended in complete defeat for the Romans, as Hasdrubal had bribed the Romans' mercenaries to desert. [232][243] The Carthaginians continued to resist vigorously: they constructed warships and during the summer twice gave battle to the Roman fleet, losing both times. The ruins of the city lie 16 kilometres (10 mi) east of modern Tunis on the North African coast. This content first appeared in the February 2016 issue of BBC History Revealed, Save over 50% on a gift subscription to their favourite history magazine. An army was usually formed by combining a Roman legion with a similarly sized and equipped legion provided by their Latin allies; allied legions usually had a larger attached complement of cavalry than Roman ones. [132][133][134], With the suppression of the rebellion, Hamilcar understood that Carthage needed to strengthen its economic and military base if it were to again confront Rome. [242] The war dragged on into 147 BC. [225] Unlike most battles of the Second Punic War, the Romans had superiority in cavalry and the Carthaginians in infantry. He was defeated in the Battle of Zama in 202 BC and Carthage sued for peace. [239][240] The Roman army moved to lay siege to Carthage, but its walls were so strong and its citizen-militia so determined it was unable to make any impact, while the Carthaginians struck back effectively. [202] After the second of these Syphax was pursued and taken prisoner by Masinissa at the Battle of Cirta; Masinissa then seized most of Syphax's kingdom with Roman help. Only on the Roman side do primary sources survive. The Seven Wonders of the Ancient World: what were they, and what happened to them? In 219 BC, Hannibal (son of Hamilcar Barca, a Carthaginian general during the First Punic War) broke the tentative peace between the two cities and laid siege to Saguntum (in eastern Spain), then an ally of Rome. [123] To prevent this, in 240 BC Spendius tortured 700 Carthaginian prisoners to death, and henceforth the war was pursued with great brutality. [20], The Roman Republic had been aggressively expanding in the southern Italian mainland for a century before the First Punic War. Carthage was ordered to surrender its navy, pay Rome a war debt of 200 talents of gold every year for 50 years, and was forbidden from waging war with anyone without Roman approval. [25] Relationships were good and the two states had several times declared their mutual friendship via formal alliances: in 509 BC, 348 BC and around 279 BC. It soon received Gallic and Ligurian reinforcements. [244] Hasdrubal had Roman prisoners tortured to death on the walls, in view of the Roman army. In 146 BC the Romans stormed the city of Carthage, sacked it, slaughtered most of its population and completely demolished it. Hasdrubal and his army retreated into the city to reinforce the garrison. This erupted into full-scale mutiny under the leadership of Spendius and Matho and 70,000 Africans from Carthage's oppressed dependant territories flocked to join the mutineers, bringing supplies and finance. [113], The Romans rebuilt their fleet again in 243 BC[114] after the Senate approached Rome's wealthiest citizens for loans to finance the construction of one ship each, repayable from the reparations to be imposed on Carthage once the war was won. [164] Hannibal then cut off the Roman army from Rome, which provoked Flaminius into a hasty pursuit without proper reconnaissance. [90][91][92], The war continued, with neither side able to gain a decisive advantage. [250] It took six days to clear the city of resistance, and on the last day Scipio agreed to accept prisoners. [67] Away from the coasts its hilly and rugged terrain made manoeuvring large forces difficult and favoured the defence over the offence. [94][95] The Romans rapidly rebuilt their fleet, adding 220 new ships, and captured Panormus (modern Palermo) in 254 BC. [136] After the First Punic War, Carthaginian possessions in Iberia (modern Spain and Portugal) were limited to a handful of prosperous coastal cities in the south. Rome won all three Punic wars.They didn't. [155] A rushed Carthaginian attack in late 218 BC was beaten off at the Battle of Cissa. [61] Getting the oarsmen to row as a unit, let alone to execute more complex battle manoeuvres, required long and arduous training. It was prohibited from waging war outside Africa, and in Africa only with Rome's express permission. What if Carthage Won the Punic Wars? [98][99] In 250 BC the Carthaginians advanced on Panormus, but in a battle outside the walls the Romans drove off the Carthaginian elephants with javelin fire. [205], The Roman fleet continued on from Massala in the autumn of 218 BC, landing the army it was transporting in north-east Iberia, where it won support among the local tribes. [30], Most male Roman citizens were eligible for military service and would serve as infantry, with a better-off minority providing a cavalry component. The main source for almost every aspect of the Punic Wars[note 1] is the historian Polybius (c. 200 – c. 118 BC), a Greek sent to Rome in 167 BC as a hostage. The previously Carthaginian territories were taken over as the Roman province of Africa. Rome won all three Punic wars.They didn't. 3,200 talents was approximately 82,000 kg (81 long tons). [181] Such Italian forces as were raised resisted operating away from their home cities and performed badly when they did. [222] The Roman Senate ratified a draft treaty, but due to mistrust and a surge in confidence when Hannibal arrived from Italy Carthage repudiated it. The Second Punic War started in 218 BC and continued until 202 BC. This time, Carthage was to be put down permanently. [227] Henceforth it was clear that Carthage was politically subordinate to Rome. In 205 BC a last attempt was made by Mago to recapture New Carthage when the Roman occupiers were shaken by another mutiny and an Iberian uprising, but he was repulsed. Carthage, Rome, Rome. To counter this, the Romans introduced the corvus, a bridge 1.2 metres (4 feet) wide and 11 metres (36 feet) long, with a heavy spike on the underside, which was designed to pierce and anchor into an enemy ship's deck. The close-order Libyan infantry and the citizen-militia would fight in a tightly packed formation known as a phalanx. The Syracusan army proved no match for the Romans, and by spring 213 BC Syracuse was besieged. [158], Hannibal captured the chief city of the hostile Taurini (in the area of modern Turin) and his army routed the cavalry and light infantry of the Romans at the Battle of Ticinus in late November. Rome won all three Punic wars.They didn't. This sealed the fate of the Carthaginians in Iberia. What were the consequences of the first Punic war? Raising fresh troops to replace these delayed the army's departure for Iberia until September. The Carthaginians were again beaten;[83] this was possibly the largest naval battle in history by the number of combatants involved. At the start of the war Carthage was the dominant power of the western Mediterranean, with an extensive maritime empire; while Rome was a rapidly expanding power in Italy, with a strong army but a weak navy. The end of the war sparked a major but unsuccessful revolt within the Carthaginian Empire known as the Mercenary War. [211][215] It was followed by the Roman capture of Gades after the city rebelled against Carthaginian rule. By the end of the Second Punic Wars… History. This was insufficient to challenge Hannibal's army in open battle, but sufficient to force him to concentrate his forces and to hamper his movements. [153] A Roman fleet carrying the Iberian-bound army landed at Rome's ally Massalia (modern Marseille) at the mouth of the Rhone,[154] but Hannibal evaded the Romans and they continued to Iberia. This conflict was fought entirely on Carthage's territories in what is now Tunisia and largely centred around the Siege of Carthage. In 211 BC, Rome contained the threat of Macedonia by allying with the Aetolian League, an anti-Macedonian coalition of Greek city states. [112] Goldsworthy describes Roman manpower losses as "appalling". [111] Rome was also close to bankruptcy and the number of adult male citizens, who provided the manpower for the navy and the legions, had declined by 17 per cent since the start of the war. [155][156] The Carthaginians reached the foot of the Alps by late autumn[152] and crossed them, surmounting the difficulties of climate, terrain[152] and the guerrilla tactics of the native tribes. Feel Free to contact me for book requests, informations or feedbacks. In the century prior to the Punic Wars, boarding had become increasingly common and ramming had declined, as the larger and heavier vessels adopted in this period lacked the speed and manoeuvrability necessary to ram, while their sturdier construction reduced the ram's effect even in case of a successful attack. The Punic Wars were a series of conflicts fought by the powerful cities of Carthage and Rome between 264 BC and 146 BC. 6th - 8th grade. Hiero II, the old tyrant of Syracuse of forty-five-years standing and a staunch Roman ally, died in 215 BC and his successor Hieronymus was discontented with his situation. [229], At the end of the war, Masinissa emerged as by far the most powerful ruler among the Numidians. [118], The Mercenary, or Truceless, War began in 241 BC as a dispute over the payment of wages owed to 20,000 foreign soldiers who had fought for Carthage on Sicily during the First Punic War. [225], The peace treaty imposed on the Carthaginians stripped them of all of their overseas territories, and some of their African ones. The period is usually split into three distinct wars – the First Punic War was fought from 264–241 BC, the Second Punic War from 218–201 BC and the Third Punic War from 149–146 BC. This war was the second instalment of the Punic War’s between the Romans and the Carthage Empire and is most well known for the command of the Carthage forces by Hannibal. [159] As a result, most of the Gallic tribes declared for the Carthaginian cause, and Hannibal's army grew to more than 40,000 men. [16] Modern historians usually take into account the writings of various Roman annalists, some contemporary; the Sicilian Greek Diodorus Siculus; the later Roman historians, Livy (who relied heavily on Polybius[17]), Plutarch, Appian (whose account of the Third Punic War is especially valuable[18]) and Dio Cassius. His surprise entry into the Italian peninsula led to the cancellation of Rome's planned campaign for the year: an invasion of Africa. Sources other than Polybius are discussed by Bernard Mineo in "Principal Literary Sources for the Punic Wars (apart from Polybius)". Rome contrived a justification to declare war on Carthage again in 149 BC in the Third Punic War. Many were from North Africa which provided several types of fighters including: close-order infantry equipped with large shields, helmets, short swords and long thrusting spears; javelin-armed light infantry skirmishers; close-order shock cavalry carrying spears; and light cavalry skirmishers who threw javelins from a distance and avoided close combat. [193][194] The siege was marked by the ingenuity of Archimedes in inventing war machines to counteract the traditional siege warfare methods of the Romans. The word ‘Punic’ derives from the word ‘Phoenician’ (phoinix in Greek or punicus in Latin), and refers to the citizens of Carthage, who were descended from the Phoenicians. Carthage paid its war debt to Rome over 50 years, until 149 BC. Carthage was taken and destroyed in 146 BC, and the Carthaginian territory was made a Roman province. Who Won the Second Punic War? Hannibal faced the Romans, including Scipio, at the Battle of Cannae in 216 BC – he won a great victory that saw some 70,000 Romans killed compared to just 6,000 Carthaginians. [166] The prisoners were badly treated if they were Romans, but released if they were from one of Rome's Latin allies. The three decisive wars that lasted almost a century in total, resulted in the ruin and eventual destruction of Carthage in 146 BC, clearing the way for Rome to continue its expansion. They carried several javelins, which would be thrown from a distance, a short sword, and a 90-centimetre (3 ft) shield. Land operations were largely confined to raids, sieges and interdiction; in 23 years of war on Sicily there were only two full-scale pitched battles. Both legionary sub-units and individual legionaries fought in relatively open order. It was the long-standing Roman procedure to elect two men each year, known as consuls, as senior magistrates, who at time of war would each lead an army. Punic Wars, also called Carthaginian Wars, (264–146 bce ), a series of three wars between the Roman Republic and the Carthaginian (Punic) empire, resulting in the destruction of Carthage, the enslavement of its population, and Roman hegemony over the western Mediterranean. Like Is predecessor, Punic is an Interesting effort set in the times of the Roman Empire, only now on the wars between Carthage and Rome (think Hannibal - the elephant one, not the people-muncher). Famously, the Hannibal proceeded to march his forces over the Alps, along with his elephants, and conquered much of northern Italy. [36] When they did they fought as well-armoured heavy infantry armed with long thrusting spears, although they were notoriously ill-trained and ill-disciplined. Rome won the First Punic War after 23 years of conflict and in the end replaced Carthage as the dominant naval power of the Mediterranean. During the Pyrrhic War of 280–275 BC, against a king of Epirus who alternately fought Rome in Italy and Carthage on Sicily, Carthage provided materiel to the Romans and on at least one occasion used its navy to ferry a Roman force. 3 years ago ... Who won the Punic Wars in order of their victories? A treaty was agreed in 201 BC which stripped Carthage of its overseas territories, and some of their African ones; imposed a large indemnity, to be paid over 50 years; severely restricted the size of its armed forces; and prohibited Carthage from waging war without Rome's express permission. [165] Hannibal set an ambush[165] and in the Battle of Lake Trasimene completely defeated the Roman army, killing 15,000 Romans,[166] including Flaminius,[165] and taking 15,000 prisoner. [162], In early spring 217 BC, the Carthaginians crossed the Apennines unopposed, taking a difficult but unguarded route. Carthage, Rome, Rome. Hannibal is one of the greatest military leaders in world history. [81] In 258 BC a Roman fleet heavily defeated a smaller Carthaginian fleet at the Battle of Sulci off the western coast of Sardinia. Please enter your number below. [37][38] Both Iberia and Gaul provided large numbers of experienced infantry – unarmoured troops who would charge ferociously, but had a reputation for breaking off if a combat was protracted[39][40] – and unarmoured close-order cavalry[41] referred to by Livy as "steady", meaning that they were accustomed to sustained hand-to-hand combat rather than hit and run tactics. [235] Rome demanded that if war were to be avoided, the Carthaginians must hand over all of their armaments. [28] The immediate cause of the war was the issue of control of the independent Sicilian city state of Messana (modern Messina). What was the result of the 3rd Punic War? [192], Sicily remained firmly in Roman hands, blocking the ready seaborne reinforcement and resupply of Hannibal from Carthage. Thus, Rome won all three Punic wars. [258] A century later, the site of Carthage was rebuilt as a Roman city by Julius Caesar, and would become one of the main cities of Roman Africa by the time of the Empire. [252] There is a tradition that Roman forces then sowed the city with salt, but this has been shown to have been a 19th-century invention. [87] At the Battle of Tunis in spring 255 BC a combined force of infantry, cavalry and war elephants under the command of the Spartan mercenary Xanthippus crushed the Romans. Mago marched his reinforced army towards the lands of Carthage's main Gallic allies in the Po Valley, but was checked by a large Roman army and defeated at the Battle of Insubria in 203 BC. [236] This done, the Romans demanded the Carthaginians burn their city and relocate at least 16 kilometres (10 mi) from the sea; the Carthaginians broke off negotiations and set to recreating their armoury. There were strong commercial links. [243] The Romans launched an assault on the walls; after confused fighting they broke into the city, but lost in the dark, withdrew. These included the large city of Capua and the major port city of Tarentum (modern Taranto). [126] An expedition was prepared to reoccupy Sardinia, where mutinous soldiers had slaughtered all Carthaginians. [211][214][215], In 206 BC, at the Battle of Ilipa, Scipio with 48,000 men, half Italian and half Iberian, defeated a Carthaginian army of 54,500 men and 32 elephants. [155][207] Claudius Nero brought over reinforcements in 210 BC and stabilised the situation. A Century of Battles: The Punic Wars, also known as the Carthaginian Wars, consisted of three warring conflicts that occurred between 264 BCE and 146 BCE. Most of his losses were among his Iberian allies. The Punic Wars was a series of three wars waged from 264-146 between the north African city-state of Carthage and Rome for control of the western Mediterranean region. [62] At least half of the oarsmen would need to have had some experience if the ship was to be handled effectively. who won the third punic war, and why. The name Punic comes from the word Phoenician (Phoinix in the Greek, Poenus from Punicus in Latin) as applied to the citizens of Carthage, who were of Phoenician ethnicity. Wars of the Fall of the Western Roman Empire, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Punic_Wars&oldid=988821175, Short description is different from Wikidata, Wikipedia pages semi-protected against vandalism, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, Roman victory, destruction of Carthage and incorporation of the Carthaginian Empire into the Roman Empire, This page was last edited on 15 November 2020, at 13:01. [22] During this period of Roman expansion Carthage, with its capital in what is now Tunisia, had come to dominate southern Spain, much of the coastal regions of North Africa, the Balearic Islands, Corsica, Sardinia, and the western half of Sicily. Fill in the blank._____ became the leading power in the _____ world. Gauls now joined Hannibal's army in large numbers, bringing it up to 60,000 men. Third Punic War, also called Third Carthaginian War, (149–146 bce), third of three wars between the Roman Republic and the Carthaginian (Punic) Empire that resulted in the final destruction of Carthage, the enslavement of its population, and Roman hegemony over the western Mediterranean. [89] The Roman fleet, in turn, was devastated by a storm while returning to Italy, losing most of its ships and more than 100,000 men. An Alternative History of the Conflict Between Rome and Carthage profiles the conflict and examines how events may have gone quite differently for Europe if Rome had been defeated. [237], As well as manning the walls of Carthage, the Carthaginians formed a field army under Hasdrubal, which was based 25 kilometres (16 mi) to the south. [183] It was the only time during the war that Carthage reinforced Hannibal. The Punic Wars (punic = Phoenician, the Carthaginians were a Phoenician people) were between Rome and Carthage. Preview this quiz on Quizizz. [38] On occasion some of the infantry would wear captured Roman armour, especially among Hannibal's troops. Hannibal negotiated a treaty whereby Syracuse came over to Carthage, at the price of making the whole of Sicily a Syracusan possession. Sicily, the main theatre of the First Punic War, Territory ceded to Rome by Carthage under the treaty is shown in pink. Get exclusive access to content from our 1768 First Edition with your subscription. [41][43] The Carthaginians also employed war elephants; North Africa had indigenous African forest elephants at the time. He then charged into the legions from behind. There seems to be a problem, please try again. [187] Hannibal repeatedly defeated Roman armies, but wherever his main army was not active the Romans threatened Carthaginian-supporting towns or sought battle with Carthaginian or Carthaginian-allied detachments; frequently with success. You have successfully linked your account! [97] On Sicily the Romans avoided battle in 252 and 251 BC, according to Polybius because they feared the war elephants which the Carthaginians had shipped to the island. The Punic Wars were fought between 264 BCE and 146 BCE. Rome had never lost so much manpower and resources in a war, but fought on nonetheless. Carthage ceased to be a military threat. Rome in 264 BC was relatively small  – a far cry from its later superiority – and it was the city of Carthage (located in what we now know as Tunisia) that reigned supreme in the ancient world. The remaining Carthaginian-controlled towns then surrendered or were taken through force or treachery[197][198] and the Sicilian grain supply to Rome and its armies was resumed. These wars involved the Romans and Carthaginians. The Punic Wars (punic = Phoenician, the Carthaginians were a Phoenician people) were between Rome and Carthage. One of those disinherited was the Numidian prince Masinissa, who was thus driven into the arms of Rome. First Punic War, also called First Carthaginian War, (264–241 bce) first of three wars between the Roman Republic and the Carthaginian (Punic) empire that resulted in the destruction of Carthage. Two of the major Samnite tribes also joined the Carthaginian cause. The Second Punic War began in 218 BC and witnessed Hannibal's crossing of the Alps and invasion of mainland Italy. The Punic Wars were a series of conflicts fought by the powerful cities of Carthage and Rome between 264 BC and 146 BC. [169] Fabius introduced the Fabian strategy of avoiding open battle with his opponent, but constantly skirmishing with small detachments of the enemy. [55] A quinquereme carried a crew of 300: 280 oarsmen and 20 deck crew and officers. It entered Gaul and took an inland route, to avoid the Roman allies to the south. [11], The accuracy of Polybius's account has been much debated over the past 150 years, but the modern consensus is to accept it largely at face value, and the details of the war in modern sources are largely based on interpretations of Polybius's account. [196] Meanwhile, the Carthaginian army was crippled by plague. Not a man to be beaten, Scipio – an admirer of Hannibal – turned the situation around at the Battle of Zama in 202 BC. Carthage, Carthage, Carthage. A cavalry force of 4,000 from the other Roman army were also engaged and wiped out. [250] The next morning the Romans systematically worked their way through the residential part of the city, killing everyone they encountered and firing the buildings behind them. [246], Scipio moved back to a close blockade of the city, and built a mole which cut off supply from the sea. By its terms Carthage paid 3,200 talents of silver[note 7] in reparations and Sicily was annexed as a Roman province. [110] Carthage assembled a fleet which attempted to relieve them, but it was destroyed at the Battle of the Aegates Islands in 241 BC,[115][116] forcing the cut-off Carthaginian troops on Sicily to negotiate for peace. The city was sacked and burned to the ground where it lay in ruin for more than a century, with its inhabitants sold into slavery. [84][85][86] The invasion initially went well and in 255 BC the Carthaginians sued for peace; the proposed terms were so harsh they fought on. [186], For 11 years after Cannae the war surged around southern Italy as cities went over to the Carthaginians or were taken by subterfuge, and the Romans recaptured them by siege or by suborning pro-Roman factions. [54] So ubiquitous was the type that Polybius uses it as a shorthand for "warship" in general. Rome won all three. The Second Punic War (218–201 BC) was the second of three wars fought between Carthage and Rome, the two main powers of the western Mediterranean in the 3rd century BC. Away from the coasts its hilly and rugged terrain made manoeuvring large forces difficult and favoured the defence over the offence. [96] The next year they lost another 150 ships to a storm. This could be increased to 5,000 in some circumstances, These elephants were typically about 2.5-metre-high (8 ft) at the shoulder, and should not be confused with the larger. [177][178], However, the majority of Rome's allies remained loyal, including many in southern Italy. The added weight in the prow compromised both the ship's manoeuvrability and its seaworthiness, and in rough sea conditions the corvus became useless; part way through the First Punic War the Romans ceased using it. There were three Punic Wars. This was not popular among the soldiers, the Roman public or the Roman elite, since he avoided battle while Italy was being devastated by the enemy. The campaign ended in disaster for the Carthaginians and their army surrendered. There were three of them. Mago's arrival in the north of the Italian peninsula was followed by Hannibal's inconclusive Battle of Crotona in 204 BC in the far south of the peninsula. The combined Roman force attacked Hasdrubal at the Battle of the Metaurus and destroyed his army, killing Hasdrubal. Carthage was a wealthy trading city, and its leaders were flirting with the idea of controlling Spain and Sicily, while Rome very much liked the idea of … [110][117], The Treaty of Lutatius was agreed. [262][263], Wars between Rome and Carthage, 264 to 146 BC, Rome, Southern and Central Italy, Sicily, Sardinia, Corsica, Iberian Islands, Iberia, and North Africa. The official website for BBC History Magazine, BBC History Revealed and BBC World Histories Magazine, Save over 50% on a BBC History Magazine or BBC History Revealed gift subscription, For nearly 80 years, Rome and Carthage fought for supremacy in a series of wars that saw Hannibal lead elephants over the Alps and Rome suffer one of its worst military defeats at Cannae. It might be Teutoburg Forest in AD 9, Zwarte Piet: the history behind the Christmas controversy, A brief history guide to Neanderthals, plus 7 fascinating facts, Saturnalia: the origins of the debauched Roman ‘Christmas’, Actium, 31 BC: the beginning of the end for Mark Antony and Cleopatra. By 212 BC the full complement of the legions deployed would have been in excess of 100,000 men, plus, as always, a similar number of allied troops. [56] It would also normally carry a complement of 40 marines;[57] if battle was thought to be imminent this would be increased to as many as 120. Roman General Publius Cornelius Scipio, later known as Scipio Africanus, emerged in opposition to Hannibal during this conflict. Why Was the Second Punic War Fought? Carthage was forbidden to possess war elephants and its fleet was restricted to 10 warships. [64], All warships were equipped with rams, a triple set of 60-centimetre-wide (2 ft) bronze blades weighing up to 270 kilograms (600 lb) positioned at the waterline. 1909 times. [101] Repeated attempts to storm Lilybaeum's strong walls failed, as did attempts to block access to its harbour, and the Romans settled down to a siege which was to last nine years. The Romans facing Hannibal in southern Italy tricked him into believing the whole Roman army was still in camp, while a large portion marched north and reinforced the Romans facing Hasdrubal. [60], As novice shipwrights, the Romans built copies that were heavier than the Carthaginian vessels, and so slower and less manoeuvrable. ... Who won the Punic Wars in order of their victories? [221], Rome and Carthage entered into peace negotiations, and Carthage recalled Hannibal from Italy. After immense material and human losses on both sides the Carthaginians were defeated. [99][100], Slowly the Romans had occupied most of Sicily; in 250 BC they besieged the last two Carthaginian strongholds – Lilybaeum and Drepana in the extreme west. Approximately 1,200 of the infantry, poorer or younger men unable to afford the armour and equipment of a standard legionary, served as javelin-armed skirmishers, known as velites. [155][206] In 217 BC 40 Carthaginian and Iberian warships were beaten by 55 Roman and Massalian vessels at the Battle of Ebro River, with 29 Carthaginian ships lost. [230] Over the following 48 years he repeatedly took advantage of Carthage's inability to protect its possessions. Their army raided the Roman lines of communication,[240] and in 148 BC Carthaginian fire ships destroyed many Roman vessels. [170], At the elections of 216 BC Gaius Terentius Varro and Lucius Aemilius Paullus were elected as consuls; both were more aggressive-minded than Fabius. [160] A large Roman army was lured into combat by Hannibal at the Battle of the Trebia, encircled and destroyed. Preview this quiz on Quizizz. Arrival of Aeneas in Carthage, Jean-Bernard Restout 1772 – 1774. [122] He campaigned successfully, initially demonstrating leniency in an attempt to woo the rebels over. [51] Many battles were decided when one side's infantry force was attacked in the flank or rear and they were partially or wholly enveloped. [146], In 218 BC there was some naval skirmishing in the waters around Sicily. [219] After landing in Africa in 204 BC, he was joined by Masinissa and a force of Numidian cavalry. The Punic Wars were a series of three wars between 264 and 146 BC fought by the states of Rome and Carthage. [15], Other, later, ancient histories of the war exist, although often in fragmentary or summary form. [224] The decisive Battle of Zama followed in October 202 BC. [58][59] In 260 BC Romans set out to construct a fleet and used a shipwrecked Carthaginian quinquereme as a blueprint for their own. [255] The province became a major source of grain and other foodstuffs. Archimedes before being killed by the Roman soldier – copy of a Roman mosaic from the 2nd century, Roman controlled territory in Iberia 218–214, 2nd century BC marble bust, identified as the younger Scipio, now in the. [21] It had conquered peninsular Italy south of the Arno River by 272 BC, when the Greek cities of southern Italy (Magna Graecia) submitted after the conclusion of the Pyrrhic War. [105] It was to be seven years before Rome again attempted to field a substantial fleet, while Carthage put most of its ships into reserve to save money and free up manpower. [211] In a carefully planned assault in 209 BC, he captured the lightly-defended centre of Carthaginian power in Iberia, Cartago Nova,[211][212] seizing a vast booty of gold, silver and siege artillery. Thank you for subscribing to HistoryExtra, you now have unlimited access. Vast amounts of materiel were delivered, including 200,000 sets of armour, 2,000 catapults and a large number of warships. [63] As a result, the Romans were initially at a disadvantage against the more experienced Carthaginians. By the time the Punic Wars ended, Rome had blossomed from a small trading city into a formidable powerhouse. You're now subscribed to our newsletter. [155][207] The Romans retreated to their coastal stronghold north of the Ebro, from which the Carthaginians again failed to expel them. Furious at Hannibal’s audacity, the Romans demanded that he be handed over for punishment. [259][260] Rome still exists as the capital of Italy;[261] the ruins of Carthage lie 24 kilometres (15 mi) east of Tunis on the North African coast. [251] There were 50,000 Carthaginian prisoners, a small proportion of the pre-war population, who were sold into slavery. For 23 years, in the longest continuous conflict and greatest naval war of antiquity, the two powers struggled for supremacy, primarily on the Mediterranean island of Sicily and its surrounding waters, and also in North Africa. Everything you ever wanted to know about... What was the Roman Empire’s greatest defeat? The Romans were still in their winter quarters. [38][52], Quinqueremes, meaning "five-oarsmen",[53] provided the workhorses of the Roman and Carthaginian fleets throughout the Punic Wars. 67% average accuracy. Roman forces besieged Carthage for three years, until it finally fell in 146 BC. [206] The Carthaginian commander in Iberia, Hannibal's brother Hasdrubal, marched into this area in 215 BC, offered battle and was defeated at Dertosa, although both sides suffered heavy casualties. In 205 BC this war ended with a negotiated peace. [102][103] They launched a surprise attack on the Carthaginian fleet, but were defeated at the Battle of Drepana; Carthage's greatest naval victory of the war. [182], When the port city of Locri defected to Carthage in the summer of 215 BC it was immediately used to reinforce the Carthaginian forces in Italy with soldiers, supplies and war elephants. Much of the First Punic War was fought on, or in the waters near, Sicily. [114] This new fleet effectively blockaded the Carthaginian garrisons. This battle confirmed Roman dominance in Italy. The Roman Senate stated they considered the preparation of this force an act of war, and demanded Carthage cede Sardinia and Corsica, and pay an additional 1,200-talent indemnity. [139][140] Hamilcar ruled as a viceroy and was succeeded by his son-in-law, Hasdrubal, in the early 220s BC and then his son, Hannibal, in 221 BC. [207] In 206 BC the Carthaginians ended this drain on their resources by dividing several Numidian kingdoms with him. In fact the war is so well known for Hannibal that it is also known as The War Against Hannibal. [23], Beginning in 480 BC, Carthage had fought a series of inconclusive wars against the Greek city states of Sicily, led by Syracuse. Livy gives a fuller record, but according to Goldsworthy "his reliability is often suspect", especially with regard to his descriptions of battles;[note 9] nevertheless his is the best surviving source for this part of the war. [104] Carthage turned to the maritime offensive, inflicting another heavy naval defeat at the Battle of Phintias and all but swept the Romans from the sea. How did the first Punic war began? [231] Masinissa's seizures of and raids into Carthaginian territory became increasingly flagrant. [240], In early 147 BC Scipio Aemilianus, an adopted grandson of Scipio Africanus who had distinguished himself during the previous two years' fighting, was elected consul and took control of the war. What was the result of the 3rd Punic War? [129] Polybius considered this "contrary to all justice"[127] and modern historians have variously described the Romans' behaviour as "unprovoked aggression and treaty-breaking",[127] "shamelessly opportunistic"[130] and an "unscrupulous act". The Punic Wars were some of the biggest wars of the Hellenistic period. [180] Carthage's new allies felt little sense of community with Carthage, or even with each other. Scipio was not able to prevent Hasdrubal from leading his depleted army over the western passes of the Pyrenees into Gaul. Thanks! When the Carthaginians refused, the Third Punic War broke out. [160] The Romans stationed an army at Arretium and one on the Adriatic coast to block Hannibal's advance into central Italy. In such circumstances it was difficult to force a battle if the other commander was unwilling to fight. [243][245] With no Carthaginian army in the field those cities which had remained loyal went over to the Romans or were captured. By the terms of the peace treaty Carthage paid large reparations and Sicily was annexed as a Roman province. [163] Hannibal attempted without success to draw the main Roman army under Gaius Flaminius into a pitched battle by devastating the area they had been sent to protect. [note 8][127][128] Weakened by 30 years of war, Carthage agreed rather than again enter into conflict with Rome. Rome and Carthage were vying for control of the Mediterranean Sea. [71] A Carthaginian army of 50,000 infantry, 6,000 cavalry and 60 elephants attempted to lift the siege in 262 BC, but was heavily defeated at the Battle of Akragas. [171] Paullus and Varro marched southward to confront Hannibal, who accepted battle on the open plain near Cannae. [211], In the spring of 208 BC, Hasdrubal moved to engage Scipio at the Battle of Baecula. Question: Who won the Punic Wars? Lesson 3. Land operations were largely confined to raids, sieges and interdiction; in 23 years of war on Sicily there were only two full-scale pitched battles. [71][75][76] The Romans built a navy to challenge Carthage's,[77] and using the corvus inflicted a major defeat at the Battle of Mylae in 260 BC. [216], Later the same year a mutiny broke out among Roman troops, which initially attracted support from Iberian leaders, disappointed that Roman forces had remained in the peninsula after the expulsion of the Carthaginians, but it was effectively put down by Scipio. The slightly rode-sounding Punic Wars is the sequel to Celtic Kings, a lesser-known RTS that picked up a respectable 70 per cent in these pages last year. The ones referred to in this article are all Euboic (or Euboeic) talents, of approximately 26 kilograms (57 lb). [183][185], Meanwhile, the Romans took drastic steps to raise new legions: enrolling slaves, criminals and those who did not meet the usual property qualification. Publius Scipio was the bereaved son of the previous Roman co-commander in Iberia, also named Publius Scipio, and the nephew of the other co-commander, Gnaeus Scipio. This breach of the recently signed treaty is considered by modern historians to be the single greatest cause of war with Carthage breaking out again in 218 BC in the Second Punic War. If you subscribe to BBC History Magazine Print or Digital Editions then you can unlock 10 years’ worth of archived history material fully searchable by Topic, Location, Period and Person. rome, because carthage couldn't defend itself. [182] By early 215 BC they were fielding at least 12 legions; by 214 BC, 18; and by 213 BC, 22. the areas won by the Romans. The Roman adaptation of the corvus was a continuation of this trend and compensated for their initial disadvantage in ship-manoeuvring skills. [241] The Romans moved their camp, and their ships, further away – so they were now more blockading than closely besieging the city. [248][249] When the main assault began it quickly captured the city's main square, where the legions camped overnight. [223] Hannibal was placed in command of another army, formed from his veterans from Italy and newly raised troops from Africa, but with few cavalry. what were the results of the third punic war. [note 2][9] Other sources include coins, inscriptions, archaeological evidence and empirical evidence from reconstructions such as the trireme Olympias. [211] The Carthaginians were defeated, but Hasdrubal was able to withdraw the majority of his army in good order. answer choices . [207] Observing that the three Carthaginian armies were deployed apart from each other, the Romans split their forces. [6][7] Polybius was an analytical historian and wherever possible personally interviewed participants, from both sides, in the events he wrote about. The Third Punic War. When Rome interfered in a dispute on the Carthaginian-controlled island of Sicily, war broke out between the two powers. Rome won this war. The two sides' infantry fought inconclusively until the Roman cavalry returned and attacked his rear. Rome won the Second Punic War. Rome forced Carthage to pay huge financial compensations and took over the island of Sicily. The Third Punic War happened between 149 BC and 146 BC and it was the Romans on the offensive again. [69] The Romans then pressed Syracuse, the only significant independent power on the island, into allying with them[70] and laid siege to Carthage's main base at Akragas on the south coast. The successful Roman invasion of the Carthaginian homeland in Africa in 204 BC led to Hannibal's recall. At … Books shelved as punic-wars: The Punic Wars by Adrian Goldsworthy, Scipio Africanus: Greater than Napoleon by B.H. The immense effort of repeatedly building large fleets of galleys during the war laid the foundation for Rome's maritime dominance for 600 years. [72], After this the land war on Sicily reached a stalemate as the Carthaginians focused on defending their well-fortified towns and cities; these were mostly on the coast and so could be supplied and reinforced without the Romans being able to use their superior army to interfere. Rome built and equipped over 100 ships to take on the Carthaginian navy and finally, in 241 BC, was able to win a decisive victory against the Carthaginians at sea. He was reinforcing the will to resist in the Carthaginian citizens; from this point there could be no possibility of negotiations. Rome won the Third Punic War and made sure that there would never be a fourth Punic War. The western Mediterranean during the Punic Wars. By entering your details, you are agreeing to HistoryExtra terms and conditions and privacy policy. 10,000 talents was approximately 269,000 kg (265 long tons) of silver. [161] Only 10,000 Romans out of 42,000 were able to cut their way to safety. Traditionally, when at war the Romans would raise two legions, each of 4,200 infantry[note 3] and 300 cavalry. There was also extensive fighting in Iberia (modern Spain and Portugal); on Sicily; on Sardinia; and in North Africa. A fresh Roman army attacked the main Carthaginian stronghold on the island, Agrigentum, in 210 BC and the city was betrayed to the Romans by a discontented Carthaginian officer. [233][234] Elements in the Roman Senate had long wished to destroy Carthage, and with the breach of the treaty as a casus belli, war was declared in 149 BC. [119][120] War-weary Carthage fared poorly in the initial engagements, especially under the generalship of Hanno. 2,000 talents was approximately 52,000 kilograms (51 long tons) of silver. There were three Punic Wars that spanned from 264 to 146 B.C. This order was ignored by the Carthaginian senate, and so the Second Punic War began. In most circumstances Carthage recruited foreigners to make up its army. offensive and imperialistic. There were three of them. [162][168], The Romans, panicked by these heavy defeats, appointed Quintus Fabius Maximus as dictator. [29] In 264 BC Carthage and Rome went to war, starting the First Punic War. The First Punic War broke out in Sicily in 264 BC as a result of Rome's expansionary attitude combined with Carthage's proprietary approach to the island. The great rivalry between the two states came to a head in 264 BC when a dispute over Sicily led to the beginning of the Punic Wars. [106][107], After more than 20 years of war, both states were financially and demographically exhausted. [179] The new allies increased the number of fixed points which Hannibal's army was expected to defend from Roman retribution, but provided relatively few fresh troops to assist him in doing so. [38][48] More formal battles were usually preceded by the two armies camping one to seven miles (2–12 km) apart for days or weeks; sometimes forming up in battle order each day. The fighting took place primarily on the Mediterranean island of Sicily and its surrounding waters, and also in North Africa, Corsica and Sardinia. The name Punic comes from the word Carthaginian in Latin. [73][74] The focus of the war shifted to the sea, where the Romans had little experience; on the few occasions they had previously felt the need for a naval presence they had usually relied on small squadrons provided by their Latin or Greek allies. Tensions arose between the cities over who should have control of the strategic island of Sicily. [172] As a result, the Roman infantry was surrounded with no means of escape. If Carthage defeated the romans it would be unlikely that they would go and conquer the vast territory Rome did. By 214 BC the bulk of southern Italy had turned against Rome. [192][196] It captured several Roman-garrisoned towns on Sicily; many Roman garrisons were either expelled or massacred by Carthaginian partisans. Although relations were generally friendly, Rome’s intervention in a dispute on the island saw them explode into conflict. [150] An army had previously been created by the Romans to campaign in Iberia, but the Roman Senate detached one Roman and one allied legion from it to send to north Italy. [108] Evidence of Carthage's financial situation includes their request for a 2,000 talent loan[note 5][note 6] from Ptolemaic Egypt, which was refused. [131] These events fuelled resentment of Rome in Carthage, which was not reconciled to Rome's perception of its situation. [note 4][40][45], Garrison duty and land blockades were the most common operations. Destroyer of Carthage and Soldier of the Month was Scipio the Younger. [162] Hannibal marched through the richest and most fertile provinces of Italy, hoping the devastation would draw Fabius into battle, but Fabius refused. How many Punic Wars were there? Rome, Carthage, Carthage. [228] Scipio was awarded a triumph and received the agnomen "Africanus". [137] Hamilcar took the army which he had led to victory in the Mercenary War to Iberia in 237 BC and carved out a quasi-monarchial, autonomous state in its south east. What was the result of the Punic Wars? Some members of the city council denounced his actions and Hasdrubal had them too put to death and took control of the city. [188] By 207 BC Hannibal had been confined to the extreme south of Italy and many of the cities and territories which had joined the Carthaginian cause had returned to their Roman allegiance. Yes. [196], Carthage sent more reinforcements to Sicily in 211 BC and went on the offensive. The First Punic War was fought from 264-241 BCE. Gladiators in ancient Rome: how did they live and die. It was the 2nd Punic War that saw Hannibal lead his elephant cavalry over the Alps into Italy, yet ultimately he lost the war. That same year, a Roman embassy was sent to Carthage to demand that the city be dismantled and moved inland away from the coast. [93] The Carthaginians attacked and recaptured Akragas in 255 BC, but not believing they could hold the city, they razed and abandoned it. [124][125], By early 237 BC, after numerous setbacks, the rebels were defeated and their cities brought back under Carthaginian rule. [220] Scipio gave battle to and destroyed two large Carthaginian armies. Rome, Carthage, Carthage. [58] This allowed Roman legionaries acting as marines to board enemy ships and capture them, rather than employing the previously traditional tactic of ramming. [42] Slingers were frequently recruited from the Balearic Islands. [167] Hannibal hoped some of these allies could be persuaded to defect, and marched south in the hope of winning over Roman allies among the ethnic Greek and Italic city states. [26][27] According to the classicist Richard Miles, Rome's expansionary attitude after southern Italy came under its control combined with Carthage's proprietary approach to Sicily caused the two powers to stumble into war more by accident than design. This war is the shortest of the three and seems to have been the final nail in the coffin of the Carthage Empire. [172] At least 67,500 Romans were killed or captured. In the peace treaty that followed, Rome gained Sicily – its first overseas province. They would rather make allies. [24] By 264 BC Carthage was the dominant external power on the island, and Carthage and Rome were the preeminent powers in the western Mediterranean. A Roman relief army broke through the siege, but was then ambushed and besieged itself. The Romans' lodgement between the Ebro and Pyrenees blocked the route from Iberia to Italy and prevented the despatch of reinforcements from Iberia to Hannibal. [149] In Cisalpine Gaul (modern northern Italy), the major Gallic tribes attacked the Roman colonies there, causing the Romans to flee to their previously-established colony of Mutina (modern Modena), where they were besieged. [191], A rebellion in support of the Carthaginians broke out on Sardinia in 213 BC, but it was quickly put down by the Romans. You can unsubscribe at any time. It began in 149 B.C., and ended in 146 B.C., with Carthage’s destruction by Roman armies led by Publius Cornelius Scipio Emilianus, grandson of Scipio “the African”. [189], During 216 BC the Macedonian king, Philip V, pledged his support to Hannibal[190] – thus initiating the First Macedonian War against Rome in 215 BC. An indemnity of 10,000 silver talents[note 11] was to be paid over 50 years. Rome and Carthage actually had a long and friendly relationship before the Punic Wars. [34][35], Carthaginian citizens only served in their army if there was a direct threat to the city. In 241 BC, Carthage was at last decisively defeated in the naval Battle of the Aegates Islands, ending the First Punic War. The Punic Wars are three wars between Rome and Carthage. [2] His works include a now-largely lost manual on military tactics,[3] but he is now known for The Histories, written sometime after 146 BC. Hannibal of Carthage . [49][50] Forming up in battle order was a complicated and premeditated affair, which took several hours. [195], A large Carthaginian army led by Himilco was sent to relieve the city in 213 BC. [145] There were three main military theatres in the war: Italy, where Hannibal defeated the Roman legions repeatedly, with occasional subsidiary campaigns in Sicily, Sardinia and Greece; Iberia, where Hasdrubal, a younger brother of Hannibal, defended the Carthaginian colonial cities with mixed success until moving into Italy; and Africa, where the war was decided. Then, deeming the treaty to be complete, the city went to war against Numidia, in what is now Algeria. [213] In 203 BC Carthage succeeded in recruiting at least 4,000 mercenaries from Iberia, despite Rome's nominal control. Whenever Carthage petitioned Rome for redress, or permission to take military action, Rome backed its ally, Masinissa, and refused. [199], In the spring of 207 BC, Hasdrubal Barca marched across the Alps and invaded Italy with an army of 30,000 men. For 17 years the two states struggled for supremacy, primarily in Italy and Iberia, but also on the islands of Sicily and Sardinia and, towards the end of the war, in North Africa. Carthage was an economic society preferring trade and money over fighting and conquering lands. The majority were deployed in southern Italy in field armies of approximately 20,000 men each. Many senior Carthaginians wanted to reject it, but Hannibal spoke strongly in its favour and it was accepted in spring 201 BC. The territory and allies of Rome and Carthage immediately before the start of the Second Punic War. [173], Little has survived of Polybius's account of Hannibal's army in Italy after Cannae. [207] This strategy resulted in the Battle of Castulo and the Battle of Ilorca, usually combined as the Battle of the Upper Baetis. [175][176] Several of the city states in southern Italy allied themselves with Hannibal, or were captured when pro-Carthaginian factions betrayed their defences. The second Punic War ended in 202 BC. How did the Romans win the first Punic war? [253][254], The remaining Carthaginian territories were annexed by Rome and reconstituted to become the Roman province of Africa with Utica as its capital. This expedition enjoyed considerable early success, but after 14 years the survivors withdrew. [64][65][66], Much of the First Punic War was fought on, or in the waters near, Sicily. [207], The Carthaginians suffered a wave of defections of local Celtiberian tribes to Rome. [179] All except the smallest towns were too well fortified for Hannibal to take by assault, and blockade could be a long-drawn-out affair, or if the target was a port, impossible. With this successful tactic, Rome won the war and earned the territory of Sicily. [141] In 226 BC the Ebro Treaty was agreed with Rome, specifying the Ebro River as the northern boundary of the Carthaginian sphere of influence. The last holdouts, including Roman deserters in Carthaginian service, fought on from the Temple of Eshmoun and burnt it down around themselves when all hope was gone. answer choices . [78][79][80] A Carthaginian base on Corsica was seized, but an attack on Sardinia was repulsed; the base on Corsica the Romans had seized was then lost. [207], In 210 BC Publius Cornelius Scipio,[note 10] arrived in Iberia with further Roman reinforcements. [218], In 205 BC Publius Scipio was given command of the legions in Sicily and allowed to enrol volunteers for his plan to end the war by an invasion of Africa. In 151 BC Carthage raised a large army, the treaty notwithstanding, and counterattacked the Numidians. With no serious threat coming from Carthage, Rome had the opportunity to expand, eventually becoming the empire that would dominate the known world. Hostages were taken.

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After Carthage emerged victorious from the Mercenary War there were two opposing factions: the reformist party was led by Hamilcar Barca while the other, more conservative, faction was represented by Hanno the Great and the old Carthaginian aristocracy. In the aftermath of the war, both states were financially and demographically exhausted. Several different "talents" are known from antiquity. [211][213] He released the captured population and liberated the Iberian hostages held there by the Carthaginians to ensure the loyalty of their tribes,[211][213] although many of them were subsequently to fight against the Romans.

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