The situation in Gaul was complicated by the presence of Ariovistus, a German king who had crossed the Rhine at the invitation of the Sequani, to help them in their wars against the Aedui. He gave the neighbouring Gallic tribe's permission to raid Eburones territory. Drapes and Lucterius were only involved in the early states of the siege. Caesar describes the Veneti ships in some detail, and in a way that makes it clear that the Romans had suffered some setbacks at sea before the final battle. This was Caesar's last great stand. "The Six Major Battles of the Gallic Wars." The next threat was the most serious. Caesar had four legions in his massive province, three posted at Aquileia in the north-east of Italy, where there was a threat from the Dacians, and only one was in Transalpine Gaul while Roman politics kept Caesar as close to Rome as he could legitimately reach until mid-March. Even if the Belgae only had half as many men as Caesar reports he would still have been outnumbered by two or three to one. Events in Rome also encouraged them – in the aftermath of the death of the unstable radical politician Clodis the city was in chaos, and the Gauls hoped that this would prevent Caesar from leaving Italy. They provided Caesar with valuable intelligence on his new opponents, including a list of the tribes involved and the number of men they had promised to bring. Although the isolated legion eventually repulsed the attack Galba was forced to retreat out of the Alps and back into the Roman Province. It is clear why the Romans read this so eagerly, and why it helped his popularity in the home front. A student of the Gallic Wars should watch for this quality throughout the books. The Twelve Caesars Suetonius. Caesar’s books were intended as an aid for future historians – that’s why they are officially called Commentaries, and not History of the Gallic War – but the author often leaves out information that historians would have found interesting. The Gauls were defeated, possibly on the Vingeanne River, and were forced to retreat west towards Alesia. His early invasion of Britain to the final siege of Alesia, a great story of Roman arms. Change ), Tensions between North Korea and the United States, Yellow Journalism and the Spanish-American War,>. Web. After a number of Veneti ships had their rigging cut the rest of the fleet attempted to escape, only to be trapped when the wind fell away. While Caesar was dealing with the Atuatuci one legion under P. Crassus made something of a flying visit to the Atlantic coast, at least officially bringing the Veneti, Unelli, Osismii, Curiosolitae, Sesuvii, Aulerci and Rhedones under Roman control. But few can adequately explain why he was a great man. Lv 7. Instead of attacking this single legion the Treveri decided to wait for their German allies to cross the Rhine. Caesar was clearly not satisfied with the results of this first expedition. They then threw a bridge across the river, and crossed over in a single day. Caesar certainly acted as if he believed he was badly outnumbered. With their fighting men scattered across the countryside the Nervii were unable to resist, and were forced to surrender. Furthermore, the Commentaries on the Gallic War have certainly allowed direct contact with the readers so that they can be able to familiarize themselves with multiple characters, and to provide insights to the cause of Caesar’s Gallic Wars. Gergovia was a very strong defensive position, but would probably have fallen in time, but soon after Caesar began his siege it became clear that the Aedui were about to join the revolt. The greatest asset of Caesar's army is its tight discipline. Caesar filled the rest of the year with two spectacular but slightly pointless expeditions outside Gaul. Caesar did not really portray Vercingetorix in a way other than just stating what his part was in the battle. As with the rest of Gaul the Belgae were split into a number of tribes, with the Bellovaci, the Suessiones and the Nervii amongst the most important. Eighteen days later he received a call for help from the Bituriges, who were now being attacked by the Carnutes. Caesar's Books, the Gallic Wars Julius Caesar wrote commentaries on the wars he fought in Gaul between 58 and 52 B. Despite a number of close calls Ambiorix managed to avoid capture, but his co-king Cativolcus committed suicide. This would lead to one of the most controversial incidents of the entire war - the complete destruction of both tribes. There was also the problem of who would fill the gap left behind by the migration – the Romans certainly didn't want a Germanic tribe to move into the newly empty space - there would have been nothing to stop Ariovistus expanding his kingdom south into Switzerland. The start of the revolt was signalled by the Carnutes, who massacred all of the Romans at Cenabum (Orleans). Acco's death did indeed play a part in their discussions – a fear of sharing the same fate actually encouraged the rebels. These meetings restored the increasingly fragile unity of the Triumvirate. Caesar states that he was in Cisalpine Gaul, conducting the business of his province, when he received this news. Vercingetorix took shelter in the strongly fortified town, where he was soon besieged by the Romans. 21. 35; iv. The only remaining centre of resistance was in the north, where the Nervii, Atrebates, Viromandui and Atuatuci tribes were determined to fight on. Reason(s) for the Gallic Wars? As the weather improved Caesar decided to divide his army in two. Paperback. On the grounds that his Gallic enemies had had German auxiliaries, Caesar built the first of his famous bridges over the Rhine, and for eighteen days became the first Roman general to lead an army across that river. Caesar is generally accused of having slaughtered all 430,000 Germans (often just after he has been accused of exaggerating the number of Germans). 20 Feb. 2014. Each of these areas was inhabited by a large number of separate tribes, which were often at war with each other, and had developed a complex series of relationships. Hence, it is evident that Caesar’s invasion of Gaul meant more than simply invading them because he also had his own personal interests to shine as a great ruler once again, and to become wealthy in Rome. Many later generals would have understood the logic of over-wintering in the territory of recently defeated enemies, thus reducing the burden of maintaining a large army. Vercingetorix was forced to move south to protect his homeland. Caesar's arrest of the final set of German ambassadors certainly provoked a hostile reaction at the time, although a suggestion that Caesar should be handed over to the Germans to atone for his offense was made by Cato, who had a long track record of hostility to Caesar. He agreed to pardon them, and this encouraged the Carnutes to seek peace, using the Remi as their intermediaries. Caesar then went into winter quarters, posting two legions with the Sequani, two with the Remi, one each with the Ambivareti and Bituriges and two amongst the Aedui, while he spent the winter at Bibracte. In the previous summer he had led a legion through the area, taking hostages and the submission of the local tribes. Caesar's Commentaries were literally written as political propoganda for the people back in Rome. As the Romans approached the Usipi and Tencteri sent out ambassadors, offering to serve the Romans as allies in return for land – either the lands they had seized from the Menapii or elsewhere in Gaul. Updated August 03, 2018 Julius Caesar wrote commentaries on the wars he fought in Gaul between 58 and 52 B.C., in seven books one for each year. He was forced to abandon his attack on the Parisii, fight his way back across the Seine, and make his way south to join up with Caesar. There was still a threat from across the Rhine. … When the Germans defending the camp saw their families being killed they gave up their attempt to defend the camp and fled towards the Rhine. Gallic leader of a revolt against Rome; defeated by Julius Caesar in the Gallic Wars, he was put to death in 46 bc. It is concise, economical and direct. – Second Gallic Revolt. The Romans followed the retreating Belgae, inflicting heavy casualties on them. Concerning his Commentaries, in all probability Caesar wrote the accounts on the Gallic War in 52 and 51 B.C., meaning of course that they were published at a particularly opportune time. By common consent, he occupies a high seat in the pantheon of Western historical figures. The Gallic War (58-51 B.C.) He was also worried that the arrival of the Germans would encourage the Gauls to seek their help in a wider revolt. This is also taken as a sign that he had aggressive plans for the following year. 1st Edition. After that battle, Caesar warred in Egypt, consorted with Cleopatra, and finally returned to Rome as dictator. Caesar gained two weeks by telling the Helvetii that he would consider their request and present his answer on 12 April. Articles on Ancient History. the Allobroges had risen in revolt, and the Romans were unable to intervene. In the centre of the country the Bituriges and Carnutes were in revolt and in the north the Bellovaci were undefeated. The sneak attack failed, and having broke the terms of their original surrender the entire population of the town, some 53,000 people, was sold into slavery. Either way - Caesar needed to achieve victories, not only in Gaul, but over the Roman populace. The most common modern assumption is that this is an indication that Caesar had already decided to conquer all of Gaul. the situation became so dangerous that he arranged to meet his fellow Triumvirs, Crassus at Ravenna and Pompey at Luca. was the conflict in which Julius Caesar first emerged as a great military leader, after an earlier career as an impoverished populist politician. Each time a town was about to fall the Veneti simply assembled their fleet and emptied the place. Only then did Caesar turn his attention towards Ambiorix, who now lead the only remaining rebel force. Once again he caught them unprepared, with their towns undefended. The Velocasses and the Veromandui promised as many, meaning either 10,000 between them or 10,000 each. 21. Whatever Caesar's original motives actually were, the presence of a large Roman army outside the Roman Province worried the Belgae, the inhabitants of north-eastern France and modern Belgium. The Gauls had indeed sent embassies to the Germans, hoping to draw them further into Gaul to fight the Romans. The Aedui were friends and allies of the Roman people, and their tribal lands were situated west of the Saone and north of the Province. Basically, Caesar portrayed him as a savage who has bad intentions, however, in reality, Vercingetorix desired to maintain the Celtic civilization and fight for its Gallic people. Pompey, the proconsul, that since he was remaining near the city invested with military command for the interests of the commonwealth, he would command those men whom when consul … Eventually Caesar returned to his camp. In the years before the Gallic War the most important of the Celtic tribes were the Aedui. Caesar now had his extended command, an army, and no enemies, while in Rome his fellow triumvirs and rivals Pompey and Crassus were gaining prestige. Caesar was indeed, a very clever man for the reason that he was able to maintain himself as a balanced and just leader in the eyes of the Roman public. Caesar was aware that his period of command in Gaul was going to end in the following summer, and so he decided to make an example of the defenders of Uxellodunum. In Julius Caesar’s ancient literature called the “Gallic Wars”, he demonstrates his conquest in his invasion of Gaul as being a defensive pre-emptive action. Caesar was able to fight off three attacks, and after the failure of the third attack the relief army dispersed. The members of the senate were all executed and the rest of the tribe was sold into slavery. It is also worth remembering that Caesar's officers, and many of his men, were literate. As soon as the weather was suitable he left the Italian part of his province, and rushed to join the army. They had dispersed after the battle of Vesontio, but could just as easily return, especially if the Romans withdrew back to the south of France. In the fourth year of the war the Gauls were quiet, but at the start of the year Caesar faced another mass migration, this time by two German tribes – the Usipi and the Tencteri. Caesar took advantage of the Gaul's exhaustion after the failure of the great revolt to win over their leaders. Caesar sent Galba and the twelfth legion to open the Great St. Bernard Pass. Caesar then drew his army up in three lines, with the cavalry at the rear, advanced the remaining eight miles between the two camps and launched a surprise attack on the Germans. Caesar then returned to the Italian part of his province. With their supplies running short the Belgic leaders decided to disperse their army and wait for Caesar to make his next move. The migration itself would have caused endless chaos and disruption in Gaul, not least when the Helvetii reached their destination and attempted to overthrow the existing inhabitants of the area. Commentary: Many comments have been posted about The Gallic Wars. Q. Cicero, the commander of the baggage camp, was lucky to avoid the same fate. Winter 54/53 B.C. Caesar was never entirely free from the increasingly dangerous politics of Rome. The Gallic Wars By Julius Caesar Translated by W. A. McDevitte and W. S. Bohn : Table of Contents Book 2 : Chapter 1 By the end of the day the Veneti fleet had been destroyed, and the tribe was forced to surrender (battle of Morbihan Gulf or Quiberon Bay). Two week legions, under Caius Caninius Rebilus, moved towards the town but Caninius realised that he wasn't strong enough to attack the much larger Gallic army. Julius Caesar wrote in compelling and no non-sense pros. The Gauls, led by Dumnacus of the Andes, were besieging Limonum (Poitiers). Match. This series of annual war commentaries is referred to by various names but is commonly called De bello Gallico in Latin, or The Gallic Wars in … Two miles from the camp the Romans were ambushed and the entire column was destroyed. Eventually Caesar arrived to take command of the siege. After capturing a number of Gauls the Sigambri realised that they had a chance to capture the Roman's baggage, which had been left at Atuatuci, the site of the disaster that had started the revolt. Vercingetorix wanted to adopt a scorched-earth policy and attempt to starve the Romans out of Gaul, but the Bituriges persuaded him to try and defend Avaricum. Julius Caesar needs little introduction. France, Belgium & declared Britain part of Rome. Commentaries on the Gallic Wars. The rebels sent a rather optimistic common embassy to Crassus, offering to swap hostages. The difficult tides also made it very difficult for the Romans to use their new fleet to land troops on these islands. ( Log Out /  He then advanced rapidly into Sequani territory and captured their capital of Vesontio (modern Besançon). They had been on their way to join the Nervii, but after the battle of the Sambre retreated back to one of their towns and prepared for a siege. [1] “Caesar’s Literary Aims in the Gallic War.” Livius. 20 Feb. 2014. Four legions under Labienus were sent north into the lands of the Parisii and Senones, while Caesar led six legions to attack Gergovia. 1 decade ago. Favorite Answer. The second Gallic Revolt broke out in the north-east of the country. To do that, he published his famous "correspondence" - what we know today as his Gallic Wars, works which were stunning successes at the time. His opponents included the Nervii, the Atuatuci, the Menapii and their German allies, the Senones and the Carnutes as well as the Treviri and the Eburones, but the rebels failed to find a common leader or to act together. The Germans had responded by advancing into the territories of the Eburones and Condrusi tribes, areas that were at least theoretically under Roman protection. Caesar ended the year by holding an investigation into the revolt of the Senones and Carnutes. Caesar's own view of events is of course slightly different. The Usipi and Tencteri had been forced out of their previous homes by the Suebi. A new Helvetian empire on the west coast of Gaul, created by conquest, would not be a stable neighbour. who did Pompey align himself with. This state is by far the most powerful of all Gaul in cavalry, and has great forces of infantry, and as … Relevance. The two armies then manoeuvred around each other for a few days before Caesar discovered that Ariovistus was waiting for the new moon to satisfy an augury that said he would lose if he fought any earlier. Although individual Roman politicians might hope for unrest and a chance to win military glory, as a whole the Republic much preferred to have stable friendly neighbours. The Structure of the Gallic War. It would also have threatened the Roman road that connected Italy to their Spanish provinces. Caesar had reached Geneva just before the Helvetii, but knew that with only one legion he had no chance of stopping the migration. Caesar's Gallic Wars chronicle the history of his military engagements during the years 58-51 B.C. Relevance. This caused the Romans a number of problems. Eventually Cicero managed to get a message to Caesar who scrapped together a relief force of two legions, won a victory over the besieging army, and raised the siege. The Romans suffered very few casualties. Test. Either way - Caesar needed to achieve victories, not only in Gaul, but over the Roman populace. As Rankin has observed, “Caesar was not a historian: he was a political war-lord in need of good public relations material to confuse both friends and enemies in Rome about the true nature of his activities in Gaul.” The following is an adaptation of Caesar’s Gallic War, trans. and they would be read out to the populace. 1st Edition. Fill in your details below or click an icon to log in: You are commenting using your account. On his return to Gaul Caesar held a meeting of the Gallic chiefs where he pretended to be unaware that they had attempted to negotiate with the Germans. This combined force then crossed the Alps and joined up with the legion already in Gaul. The north-east of the country, above the Marne and the Seine was populated by the Belgae, the centre of the country was inhabited by people who called themselves Celts, but were called Gauls by the Romans and the area beyond the Garonne River was populated by the Aquitani. 19 Mar. The Carnutes submitted and Caesar went into new winter quarters at Cenabum. Caesar describes a meeting with a delegation of leading Gallic nobles who requested his assistance against Ariovistus, but a German presence west of the Rhine would probably have attracted his attentions anyway. The defeat of the Bellovaci effectively ended the war in the north-east. The Romans planned to attack on the next day. Even though the summer was close to its end Caesar's next move was even more dramatic. 38; vii. Caesar rushed back to Gaul, where he discovered that his fears were justified. Caesar decided to cross the Rhine for a second time. – Second Gallic Revolt. The three books on the civil war are comparable; they describe the events of the years 49 and 48 but are unfinished. His motives for this decision are unclear – none are given in his commentary. Paperback. This piece of literature was written as a third-person narrative so that the narrator’s voice becomes the voice of the story. Loyalty of soldiers and reputation as a great military leader. The only tribes that had not yet acknowledged Roman authority were the coastal tribes of the Menapii, who lived in the Rhine delta, and their western neighbours the Morini. The cavalry and light troops were sent across the river to guard against any attack, but no infantry screen was posted. 2 Caesar mentions his letters to the Senate, ii. Vercingetorix hadn't entered the town, and his army was able to slip away intact. was both the final full year of Caesar's command and the final year of the war. Outwardly, it is believed that the wars were fought primarily to boost Julius Caesar’s political career and pay off his massive debts. Therefore, while Caesar's "Gallic Wars" are basically factual, you still have to take some of what he writes with a grain of salt. He ordered tunnels to be dug to divert a natural spring that was the defenders last source of fresh water, and when the spring suddenly dried up the defenders promptly surrendered. It is a marvel that this text has made it through the centuries. Caesar was still unwilling to let any large body of Germans settle on the west bank of the Rhine, so he would inevitably have led his armies against them. After a series of cavalry skirmishes Caesar decided to offer battle, but neither side was willing to make the first move. A reading of Caesar’s most famous book, The Gallic War (De Bello Gallico), provides some answers and compelling lessons in the traits and attributes of a leader. Dumnorix of the Aedui had command of the Allied cavalry with the Roman army, and he was making sure that no supplies reached the army. According to figures given by Caesar a total of 368,000 people were involved in the migration, of whom a quarter, or about 90,000, were fighting men. After two campaigning seasons Caesar could claim to have subdued all of Gaul. When the Romans did begin their pursuit the Helvetii surrendered. Answer Save. Clad in the bloodred cloak he usually wore “as his distinguishing mark of battle,” Caesar led his troops to victories throughout the province, his major triumph being the defeat of the Gallic army led by the chieftain Vercingetorix, in 52 bce. Answer Save. Caesar began by sending two embassies to Ariovistus, each of which was rebuffed. Home:. This series of annual war commentaries is referred to by various names but is commonly called De bello Gallico in Latin, or The Gallic Wars in English. isabellad15. the governor of the Province died unexpectedly. On his return to Gaul he ordered his men to construct as many transport ships as they could, and by the end of the winter they had built 600 transports and 28 warships. The border between the Province and the rest of Gaul began at Geneva, then followed the Rhöne valley for some way before turning west to reach the Pyrenees. The Bituriges called on the Aedui for assistance, but the response was half-hearted at best. A reading of Caesar’s most famous book, The Gallic War (De Bello Gallico), provides some answers and compelling lessons in the traits and attributes of a leader. victories. These plans were completely unacceptable to the Romans. Inc, 15 Jan. 2013. The Suessiones provided King Galba and 50,000 men, as did the Nervii. But few can adequately explain why he was a great man. Hirtius wrote a Bellum Alexandrinum about … Many years ago I remember reading that Julius Caesar did not write for historians he wrote for the purposes of his own aggrandizement and political advancement. The Battle of Alesia was fought September-October 52 BC during the Gallic Wars (58-51 BC) and saw the defeat of Vercingetorix and his Gallic forces. The Gallic army on the south of the Loire was defeated by two of Caesar's lieutenants. Orgetorix didn't survive long enough to take part in the migration. He convinced the Sequani to allow the Helvetii to cross their lands, and the migration began in earnest. Concerning his Commentaries, in all probability Caesar wrote the accounts on the Gallic War in 52 and 51 B.C., meaning of course that they were published at a particularly opportune time. 22. Many years ago I remember reading that Julius Caesar did not write for historians he wrote for the purposes of his own aggrandizement and political advancement. In the resulting battle the Treveri were defeated and Indutiomarus's supporters fled into exile in Germany. Fundamentally, Caesar uses the third-person narrative in order to make his commentaries on the Gallic Wars more objective and unprejudiced. For the moment the Aedui stayed loyal, although the Bituriges joined the revolt. The seizure of the Roman envoys clearly angered Caesar, who would late use it to justify his harsh treatment of the defeated Veneti. There is also an 8th book, written by Aulus Hirtius. When they discovered that Caninius was following them south they decided to attempt to defend Uxellodunum, in what became the final siege of the Gallic War. Caught entirely by surprise the Germans were unable to mount any real resistance. Fundamentally, Caesar uses the third-person narrative in order to make his commentaries on the Gallic Wars more objective and unprejudiced. Caesar's next target was the Bituriges capital of Avaricum. Caesar managed to restore some order, before the tenth legion and the two new legions arrived to save the day. By the time the Germans had been defeated Caesar had arrested their ambassadors (just as the Veneti had done in the previous year), and claimed to have virtually wiped out the two tribes. Caesar believed that this was just another attempt to deceive him, and arrested the delegation, which he didn't believe to have the status of ambassadors. when and where was Crassus killed. In an attempt to counter this Caesar sent Divitiacus and the Aedui on a diversionary raid into Bellovaci territory, which at a key moment after the fighting on the Aisne did indeed help break up the Belgic army. Keep in mind that what is most interesting is that Caesar does not explain why he went to war with Gaul at all. Just before Caesar had defeated Ariovistus a large contingent of Germans had been about to cross the river. Launching a wave of violence across Gaul, Roman soldiers, settlers, and merchants were killed in large numbers. All the Gallic War commentaries (except the last, a later addition by Aulus Hirtius) report a single year’s campaigning, evidently composed as soon as the legions were back in winter quarters and probably rushed to Rome in time to catch the first of the annual “theatre games” in early April, where a big popular audience could be counted on. Vercingetorix began the sequence with an attack on the Boii town of Gorgobina. Ariovistus and the survivors of his army fled across the Rhine, and for the moment at least the German threat was removed. 90. The Landmark Julius Caesar: The Complete Works: Gallic War, Civil War, Alexandrian War, African War, and Spanish War (Landmark Books) Kurt A. Raaflaub. One part was sent south, into the lands of the Ruteni, where they posed a threat to the Roman Province, while Vercingetorix moved north to attack the Bituriges. Discuss how Caesar takes advantage of these situations. After a month long siege the town fell to the Romans, and everybody in the place was killed. Many historians agreed to this and also believed that Caesar’s ancient literature can be used as an important source to the historical events of the Gallic Wars. Having gained this day as a truce, the German ambassadors then left the Roman camp. This disaster convinced the Bellovaci to seek peace, while Comius fled into Germany. While the men attempted to mount a rearguard action in their camp the women and children scattered into the surrounding countryside, with the Roman cavalry in pursuit. In 61 B.C. Since the Roman government disapproved of Caesar’s undertakings, his literary aim in the Gallic War is to merely justify his actions of his annexation of Gaul (modern France) to Rome. His original desire was likely to pursue glory against the further reaches of Illyricum and Dacia, but events in his new provinces soon changed the plan. victories. Caesar was already worried about the loyalty of the Aedui, and so he dashed north through their territory into the lands of the Lingones, where two of his legions were in their winter quarters. Q. Titurius Sabinus won an easy victory over the tribes of Normandy, who were tricked into attacking his camp, while P. Crassus defeated the tribes of Aquitaine in a campaign that ended when he attacked their camp. Instead he suggested that they re-cross the Rhine to support the Ubii in their war with the Suevi. Indutiomarus intended to lead the Treviri against Labienus, but the first blow fell on Sabinus's camp at Atuatuci, somewhere in the lands of the Eburones. when were the gallic wars. Caesar was a popular politician, who had used unorthodox methods to get two land bills passed during this time as Consul, before arranging to be given a five year command in his new provinces. an increasing number of Gallic leaders began to meet in private to discuss a new rebellion. a Helvetii nobleman, Orgetorix, convinced his people to prepare to migrate across Gaul to the west coast where they would establish a new kingdom. The shortage of supplies forced the Romans to make a diversion towards Bibracte, the largest Aeduan town, where they expected to find supplies. When Dumnacus discovered that a second Roman army was on its way he abandoned the siege and attempted to flee to the north, but he was caught by Fabius somewhere close to the Loire and his army was destroyed. The Gallic Wars were triggered by the Helvetii, a Gallic tribe that lived in modern Switzerland. The Belgae then camped two miles away from the Roman camp. The Nervii advanced so quickly that Caesar didn't have the time to organise his army and only the increasingly professionalism of his men saved him from a humiliating defeat. Indutiomarus was killed in the fighting and for a short period Gaul was more tranquil. 1 Answer. Caesar's next attempt to end the Eburones revolt almost ended in disaster. Caesar's next target was Ariovistus and his 120,000 Germans, who had established themselves on the west bank of the Rhine. pompey returned from ___ to ____ spain to rome. N.p., n.d. Believed to have occurred around Mont Auxois, near Alise-Sainte-Reine, France, the battle saw Julius Caesar besiege the … Caesar responded to this threat by moving east towards the lands of the Sequani through the territory of the Lingones. The Aedui requested help from their Roman allies, but in 62 B.C. This was partly because Caesar acted too quickly for the rebels. Julius Caesar took official command of his provinces of Illyricum, Cisalpine Gaul and Transalpine Gaul in 59 BC. A regular siege followed, at which the Gauls showed that they had learnt from the Romans, building their own siege tower and contravallations around the Roman camp. The three books on the civil war are comparable; they describe the events of the years 49 and 48 but are unfinished. Gravity. Once they were in power the new consuls passed a bill that gave Caesar his five extra years in Gaul. This forced Caesar to leave his winter quarters and attempt to lift the siege. Web. This encouraged at least one German tribe, the Sigambri, to cross the Rhine to take part. Download: A text-only version is available for download. Just as Caesar expected the Aedui openly joined the revolt, eventually accepting Vercingetorix's authority. Caesar's Gallic War consists of seven parts ("books"), each devoted to one year of campaigning. His partners in the First Triumvirate, Crassus and Pompey, both had distinguished backgrounds – Crassus had defeated Spartacus and was fabulously wealthy, while Pompey had ended the Third Mithridatic War and conquered much of modern Turkey. Before the Romans had completed their siege works Vercingetorix sent away his cavalry, and ordered them to gather a massive relief army. This a parallel presentation of the works of Julius Caesar in Latin and English translation. If Caesar's figures are correct then there must have been at least 200,000 women and children in the camps. One of the most significant differences between the Mediterranean and the North Atlantic are the tides. The resulting battle (generally known as the battle of Vesontio despite having taken place some way from that town) ended with a crushing Roman victory. In the next book, which deals with the year 57, we visit the Belgians, who live… Ariovistus defeated the Aedui at Admagetobriga. Most of the time Transalpine Gaul was governed separately from Cisalpine Gaul, but in 59 B.C. This time the rebels appointed a supreme commander – Vercingetorix, probably the most famous of the Gauls. As the fighting in the north-east began to wind down, Caesar sent Caius Fabius with two and a half legions west to reinforce Caninius. 90. Ultimately, Caesar’s ancient literature can be considered as an instrument to manipulate the readers’ minds and influence public opinion in Rome. He also claimed to have captured a great number of Veneti towns, a time consuming processes that apparently required the construction of massive earthwork ramps to allow the Roman army to approach the town walls. Perhaps the most unusual feature of the Gallic War is that in Caesar's commentaries on the war we have a first hand account of all but the last year of the war, written at the time by the most important figure in that war. Caesar's problems in Rome were resolved just in time, for in March it became clear that the Helvetii were about to begin their migration. After apparently achieving that objective Galba went into winter quarters at Octodurus, but he was then attacked and nearly overwhelmed by a much larger Gallic force. Caesar's original plan was to wait for the Helvetii to reach the end of their migration before intervening, but by the time he returned to Gaul the Helvetii were about to cross the Saone and enter the lands of the Aedui, who asked Caesar for help. After a night march the Roman's caught up with and defeated the isolated Helvetii (battle of the Arar). The Gallic Wars By Julius Caesar. The resulting battle ended in a crushing defeat for the Helvetii (battle of Bibracte), but at some cost to the Romans, who were unable to pursue for three days while they recovered from their efforts. Whatever their true motive, the Veneti revolt began when they seized Q. Velanius and T. Silius, the two representatives sent to request grain. He gathered a fleet on the north coast of Gaul, and led two legions on the first Roman expedition to Britain. Lv 5. Not paper as we have today, but some kind of paper which could be used for writing a long account. There are two types of paper in the ancient world: # 1. I will spend more time laying out the events of Book I to reveal the complex nature of Caesar’s writing and his thoughts in politics. Caesar moved the council to the town of Lutetia (modern Paris), and then led his legions on a rapid march into the lands of the Senones. In around 61 B.C. 2 Caesar mentions his letters to the Senate, ii. Vercingetorix abandoned the siege of Gorgobina, and attempted to prevent the fall of Noviodunum, but despite an inconclusive cavalry engagement the town still fell. Acco, who had been the author of that enterprise, on being informed of his arrival, orders the people … In 52 BC, the Gallic leaders met at Bibracte and declared that Vercingetorix would lead the united Gallic army. It was probably always going to be only a matter of time before Ariovistus clashed with the Romans, who had a perfectly reasonable dread of Germanic hordes crossing the Rhine, having suffered a series of heavy defeats at the hands of the Cimbri and the Teutones in 113-101 B.C. The Helvetii were forced to search for an alternative route. 38; vii. Some of the survivors of this disaster, led by a Senonian called Drapes and an Cadurcian called Lucterius, escaped to the south in an attempt to reach the Roman Province. Caesar was now becoming rather overconfident. Plutarch's Life of Caesar, written well over a century later, states that 400,000 Germans were cut to pieces, and that the survivors took shelter with the Sugambri, another German tribe. Since the Roman government disapproved of Caesar's undertakings, his literary aim in the Gallic War is to merely justify his actions of his annexation of Gaul (modern France) to Rome. What did Caesar gain as a result of his victories in the Gallic Wars?
2020 when did caesar write the gallic wars