A common explanation is that the Civil War was fought over the moral issue of slavery. Slavery, in Edward L. Ayers’s formulation, is the “one-word” answer to the question of what caused the Civil War, but slavery per se was not the cause of the war. California admitted as free state 2. The period of Reconstruction started soon after, and there was a significant change in the lives of the slaves in the South. Both North and South burned with righteous anger because both passionately believed in the justice of their cause. Significant improvements are coming soon! Two free states joined the Union (Oregon and Minnesota), while a slave state (Kansas) was initially denied entry. The Civil War was caused by many several pressures, principles, and prejudices, fueled by sectional differences, and was finally set into motion by a most unlikely set of political events. In between these events were numerous other violent events, and lawmakers were not immune. The election of a Republican, Abraham Lincoln, as President in 1860 sealed the deal. The war started over unfair tariffs. It accepts the shallow but unchallenged premise that the Civil War occurred because slavery was practiced in the South, and that righteous resolve to … I think that you will have a difficult time finding a convincing argument that the American Civil War was caused by anything else but slavery. Ayers identifies slavery as “the key catalytic agent in a volatile new mix of democratic politics and accelerated communication, a process chemical in its complexity and subtlety.” The north was loosing and garnered help from people that wanted total abolishment. Get thought-provoking content delivered to your email inbox every weekday. Still, the secession question would seem to present an opportunity to look back on causes and conditions that led to America's Civil War. Below are five other causes of the Civil War. Slavery was a second thought. The causes of the Civil War and its cost to a young nation. DC- slavery but not slave trade 4. Uncertainty as to what the federal government could and could not do began before the ink on the U.S. Constitution was dry. But each cause also existed apart from the institution of slavery. The Federalist favored a strong federal government and a National Bank to handle the debt problems. Fundamental Disagreement on Constitutional Principles. The movement is unlikely to succeed, at least for now. Southern political insecurity was exacerbated by external economic pressure. This began with the debates over the three-fifths clause at the Constitutional Convention of 1787 which dealt with how enslaved people would be counted when determining a state's population and as a result, its representation in Congress. 1. The causes of the Civil War and its cost to a young nation. A major issue since the very start of the United States was the issue of the Federalist vs Anti-Federalist. Evidence That Slavery Was the Cause of the Civil War: Yeats wrote his short p… The Union Was Rapidly Changing Amidst Political Upheaval. ... "One of the ways you bring the country back together in the wake of the Civil War is to stop talking about what caused it," Deaton said. If, how, and to what extent the federal government could limit or abolish slavery loomed over American history. Radical Republicans with increasing frequency came to believe they had a moral duty to abolish slavery, that they were obligated by “a Higher Law than the Constitution.”. One of the earliest instances involved Elijah P. Lovejoy, a printer who was killed in 1837 when his small abolitionist newspaper was attacked by a mob of slave sympathizers. Even before the Constitution was written, Samuel Johnson ironically asked, “How is it that the loudest yelps for liberty come from the drivers of Negroes?” By the 1850s the hypocrisy could no longer be ignored because of the sheer scope of slavery. All constitutional issues aside, the radicals probably were correct that no nation conceived on such lofty principles could indefinitely condone a system that enslaved. Some fought on moral grounds. You may notice some bugs in submission and user experience. The Southern states wanted to assert their authority over the federal government so they could abolish federal laws they didn't support, especially laws interfering with the South's right to keep slaves and take them wherever they wished. California will never succeed, or should I say, secede from the United States and any California who fancies such a Liberal idea is smoking something grown in California. Slavery Caused the Civil War March 21, 2016 By Heather Cox Richardson. Radical Republicans disagreed. Up until the 1850s, the Union had survived largely through the Missouri Compromise, a Faustian bargain that maintained the political balance between the North and South but did nothing to address the slavery question. Obviously, it’s difficult to separate slavery from any discussion on the Civil War. Causes of the Civil War In the years prior to the Civil War almost all sectional conflicts revolved around the enslavement issue. Many historians believe that slavery was the main controversy that sparked the historical conflict. (It took two years for Sumner to recover.). Feeling excluded from the political system, they turned to the only alternative they believed was left to them: secession, a political decision that led directly to war. The South wished to take slavery into the western territories, while the North was committed to keeping them open to white labor alone. Up and Down arrows will open main level menus and toggle through sub tier links. Slavery was the major cause of the American Civil War, with the South seceding to form a new country to protect slavery, and the North refusing to allow that. The outbreak of the Civil War forever changed the future of the American nation and perhaps most notably the future of Americans held in bondage. A common explanation is that the Civil War was fought over the moral issue of slavery. The Civil War is known as the bloodiest war in the history of America, and any discussion on this subject will not be complete without the mention of slavery. Sectionalism, Protectionism, and States’ Rights were also major factors.Or phrased another way, slavery was a central factor in the tension leading up to the Civil War, but it wasn’t the only cause for tension (nor was slavery the main stated reason the Civil War was started).To better understand the above claims we can look at writings in … Below are five other causes of the Civil War. Abolishing Freedom Under the Guise of 'Woke' Hollywood, How Big Government Stacked the Deck Against Small Business, Kobe Bryant’s 'Letter to My Younger Self' Holds a Lesson for Us All, 'Jack Ryan' Gets Four Pinocchios on Venezuela. Before that it would not be allowed in new states joining the Union and would soon disappear. In the USA slavery was identified as the most contradicting and the earliest problem that caused division between the South and North America (Acharya et al., 2016). There Was a Breakdown of Decorum and Civil Discourse. As I type, the secession movement in California is picking up steam. With talk of secession heating up, a look back on the causes of America's (first?) Causes of the Civil War. “In effect, the South had all the disadvantages of a one-crop economy,” wrote the historian Paul Johnson. Instead, as historian Shelby Foote noted, “Southern sympathizers sent Brooks walking sticks by the dozen, recommending their use on other abolitionists…” Brooks, censured by Congress, was later overwhelmingly reelected to his congressional seat. After all, it had “caused” the War. Since the Civil War did end slavery, ... White Northerners’ fear of freed slaves moving north then caused Republicans to lose the Midwest in the congressional elections of November 1862. This caused not just harsh language, but spasms of violence that racked the nation. Read this American History Essay and over 89,000 other research documents. For instance, in the case of America, many scholars have associated Civil War with slavery. Slavery, total abolishment, didn't come up until two years into the war. Sweeping Economic Changes. He states that the fundamentalists gave the argument of the war starting due to the inevitable conflict between slavery and free labor, while the revisionists emphasize the small events … Another factor was territorial expansion. NM/TX border dispute settled in favor of NM Southern political insecurity was exacerbated by external economic pressure. A major political party (the Whigs) abruptly died. Jefferson Davis, in a speech in the early 1850s, spoke for many Southerners when he said, “You free-soil agitators are not interested in slavery….not at all…, It is so that you may have an opportunity of cheating us that you want to limit slave territory. By the mid 19th century the Civil War began when the south seceded to mainly protect their institution of slavery. The North and the South shared a common history, but they effectively became two nations in the early 19th century. Some fought because they felt their way of life and prosperity were threatened. Around the globe, more and more countries were ramping up production of raw cotton. While Southerners boasted that “Cotton is King,” their primary export had become steadily less valuable in the decade leading up to the Civil War. Subscribe to Intellectual Takeout's Daily Digest! In normal times a violent attack on an old, unarmed man would spark outrage. Back in 1997, Virginia Governor George Allen issued a proclamation, written by the Sons of Confederate Veterans, claiming that the Civil War was fought over independence and sovereign rights, but not slavery.The issue echoed just a few years ago when another Virginia Governor, Bob McDonnell, issued a similar proclamation, only adding a mention of slavery after national and state protests. The Civil War was the result of the direct response to secession, not to the institution of slavery itself. ©2020 Charlemagne Institute. The Missouri Compromise was killed. Terms of Use | Privacy Policy | © 2003 - 2014 Oregon Public Broadcasting. The war began as a struggle to preserve the Union, not a struggle to free the slaves but as the war dragged on it became increasingly clear to President Abraham Lincoln the best way to force the seceded states into submission was to The argument over whether slavery was the primary cause of the Civil War is one of the most controversial topics in American history. You are currently using the BETA version of our article comments feature. New Mexico & Utah- popular sovereignty 3. Tab will move on to the next part of the site rather than go through menu items. Slavery and the Civil War: Not What You Think 04/14/2011 12:18 pm ET Updated Jun 14, 2011 With a volley of artillery fired at Fort Sumter in Charleston Harbor on April 12, 1861, the South started a war that nearly destroyed the United States in pursuit of a terrible cause. As the nation changed, it seemed to give credence to John C. Calhoun’s warning (made just days before he died) that if the South waited too long to act it would no longer be strong enough to leave the Union (peaceably or not). 3 causes of the civil war besides slavery essay. But even though these debates were focused on states rights (another cause of the civil war) this conflict wouldn’t have risen up unless slavery was not the main goal of the south. The Civil War, which lasted from 1861 to 1865, was mainly caused by the moral issue of slavery and the constitutional issue of slavery, which led to the division of the western states between freedom and slavery. Left and right arrows move across top level links and expand / close menus in sub levels. The Civil War was about slavery, but it wasn’t “just about slavery”. that plunged the U.S. into a civil war from 1861 to 1865. Did the South secede because of slavery? It was caused by misunderstandings, confusions, and miscalculations of the nation as a whole. One was an agrarian society reliant on slave labor that exported cash crops; it had little liquid capital, less manufacturing, was debt-dependent, favored low tariffs, and opposed direct taxation. In response, Brooks attacked Sumner in his Senate office with a cane, leaving Sumner in a bleeding heap surrounded by cane shards. Perhaps the most notorious instance was Congressman Preston Brooks’ attack on Sen. Charles Sumner, who on the Senate floor delivered a speech filled with sexual innuendo that impugned the honor of a kinsman of the South Carolina Congressman.  What Caused the Civil War? You desire to weaken the political power of the Southern states. If that were the case, then the logical first step of the Union would have been a direct assault on the institution. To be fair, each of these causes was impacted by the institution of slavery to one degree or another. The Founders had created a system “conceived in liberty”—but one, he admitted, that lacked the power to liberate the enslaved. His writing/reporting has appeared in TIME magazine, The Wall Street Journal, CNN, Forbes, Fox News, and the Washington Times. 2. It is a subject that has been debated since the war first began in 1861. Since the South had no financial system to speak of, one bad crop often sent plantation owners to Yankee banks (or London ones). Civil War. The Civil War and Reconstruction (HIST 119)Professor Blight begins this lecture with an attempt to answer the question "why did the South secede in 1861?" Having acknowledged that, let me also say I have long believed there is no more concise or stirring accounting for the war than the sentiments propounded by Irish poet William Butler Yeats in The Second Coming, some lines of which are included in this essay. The South, which was known as the Confederate States of … Support Your Local PBS Station: Dr. Ed Ayers ideas were that the Civil War was not caused by slavery at all. Historians debating the origins of the American Civil War focus on the reasons why seven Southern states (followed by four more after the onset of the war) declared their secession from the United States (), why they united to form the Confederate States of America (simply known as the "Confederacy"), and why the North refused to let them go. Because you want, by an unjust system of legislation, to promote the industry of the North-East states, at the expense of the people of the South and their industry.”. What caused the Civil War? More from Wes about the causes of the Civil War. Slavery, Not States' Rights, Caused Civil War Whose Political Effects Linger : It's All Politics Slavery was the Civil War's cause despite revisionists … And why? Any man who takes it upon himself to explain the causes of the Civil War deserves whatever grief comes his way, regardless of his good intentions. The North, on the other hand, was a burgeoning industrial economy with an elaborate financial sector intent on expansion. While there were many political and cultural differences between the North and the South that contributed to the American Civil War, the main cause of the war was slavery. However, the national discussion about state’s rights and territorial expansion were also the straws that broke the camel’s back. To be fair, each of these causes was impacted by the institution of slavery to one degree or another. 4. Alexander H. Stephens (Photo: NYPL Digital Collections) W as the Civil War fought over slavery? Hire writer Testimonials I was much worried about my dissertation paper because its 3 causes of the civil war besides slavery essay rating was very important to me, but I had no time on writing. In the decade preceding the conflict, California, Minnesota, Oregon and Kansas all became states. To be fair, each of these causes was impacted by the institution of slavery … That is not to say the average Confederate soldier fought to preserve slavery or the average Union soldier went to war to end slavery. Video: Below we will discuss the impact slavery had in leading up to the war as well as some of the differences between the two sides that led to such a great divide. Polling shows that one in three Californians support leaving the Union following Donald Trump's victorious presidential campaign, and an organization--YesCalifornia.org--is circulating a petition calling for a special election that would allow Californians to vote for or against independence. One of the last was John Brown’s deadly failed raid on Harpers Ferry in 1859. Indeed, it’s an apparition that still haunts modern American politics. Ever wonder how the Civil War was started? Did the North care about abolishing slavery? The question of how these states were admitted to the Union, and which ones, created tension between the North and South. The South might have had the Constitution on its side, but history was not. 3. Historians have speculated that even had the slavery question been resolved peacefully, war or secession still might have occurred during the westward expansion. The primary cause of the Civil war was states rights, slavery only being an indirect cause. In fact, it was the economics of slavery and political control of that system that was central to the conflict. The anti-slavery movement, many in the South believed, was merely a vehicle to achieve Northern dominance. What led to the outbreak of the bloodiest conflict in the history of North America? Fugitive Slave Law 5. The Census of 1860 shows there were some 4 million slaves in the South—compared to 78,000 in 1727 and 697,000 in 1790. The law that replaced it—the Kansas-Nebraska Act—was found unconstitutional (a stunning action at the time). All rights reserved. It’s easy to lose sight of all the things that happened in the latter half of the 1850s. A nation divided Learn more about why the Civil War was fought. 1. Historians generally agree that other economic conflicts were not a major cause of the war. But to say that slavery was the sole cause of the Civil War overlooks other stark differences that divided the North and South in the lead-up to it. So, to recap: In the lead-up to Civil War you had a rapidly changing economy precipitated by a suddenly expanding global marketplace, political upheaval in a period of national growth, sharp disagreement on the fundamental purpose and power of the federal government, a collapse of civil discourse and spasms of righteous violence, and a divided people with divergent dreams essentially attempting to build a nation in their own image built on their own ideals. Donate Now. Others fought to preserve the Union. What directly caused the Civil War or the secession of the first seven Confederate States rather was the Presidential Election of 1860, in which the Democratic Party was divided between Northern Democrats and Southern Democrats (neither of which were unsurprisingly unable to win), allowing the fledgling Republican Party's candidate Abraham Lincoln to become the 16th President of the United … The other was an industrial economy that favored high tariffs (to protect industry), favored direct taxation, had an elaborate financial system, and was eager to expand into the West through homesteading and railroads. The Civil War erupted from a variety of long-standing tensions and disagreements about American life and politics. Jonathan Miltimore is the Managing Editor of FEE.org. Below are five other causes of the Civil War. Myth #1: The Civil War wasn't about slavery. Historians have speculated that even had the slavery question been resolved peacefully, war or secession still might have occurred during the westward expansion. The prospect of a president opposed to slavery struck fear in the hearts of Southerners. His victory, without a single Southern electoral vote, was a clear signal to the Southern states that they had lost all influence. The peculiar institution hovers over the conflict specter-like. The site navigation utilizes arrow, enter, escape, and space bar key commands. All of these things occurred under Democratic presidents relatively sympathetic to slavery. Lincoln—both before and during the Civil War—said the federal government lacked the power to force emancipation on the states. But each cause also existed apart from the institution of slavery. Now let's back to what caused the civil war... (952) 388-0840 • 8011 34th Ave S, Ste C-11, Bloomington, MN 55425. So those great generals of the South were fighting for economic freedom and didn't have anything to do with slavery except transcendentally. All rights reserved. Enter and space open menus and escape closes them as well. I don't think Liberals in California ought to be angry Trump is elected President. Slavery as the Cause of the American Civil War 483 Words | 2 Pages. Meanwhile, the newly formed Republican party, whose members were strongly opposed to the westward expansion of slavery into new states, was gaining prominence. Receive intellectually engaging content and updates from our organization. Read on to learn more about what caused the civil war.
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